Another reason that English (or any other language) is unlikely to become the one global language is that people always use language as a means of emphasising their own identity. Even within English, there are various different types of English, and the usage of English can be a highly divisive issue. For example, native speakers of British English are very protective of their own style of English, and British hostility towards Americanisms (words or phrases which are particular to American English, like the American "oftentimes" as opposed to the British "often" and the American "I have gotten" as opposed to the British "I have got") can be surprisingly vitriolic. Language protection is always linked to identity; if you are living in the Netherlands you only have to look as far as Belgium to see how.
However, while new technology means that people all over the world are exposed to English, it also means that there are new and exciting ways to help keep languages alive. Social media is perfect for showing language diversity; many people use English (or Mandarin, or Swahili, or Spanish, or other dominant languages) for professional and formal work while using their own native languages for conversations with friends and family. Until recently, many of these native languages were unwritten and unused outside the home, but the rise of text messaging and social media has revitalised these languages and made them relevant to younger speakers.
In Thailand, English is necessary in all levels of education because Ministry of Education specifies English as a compulsory subject in The Basic Education Course, which every student have to learn English form Grade 1 onwards in order to have four language skills (Wonglekha & Khamkhien, 2010).
It is necessary for programming languages to be fixed and closed, while natural languages are open-ended and allow blends. Code allows long lists of input data to be read in, stored and rapidly parsed by shuffling around data in many steps, to finally arrive at some output data. The point is that this is done in a rigorous way. Natural languages on the other hand must allow their speakers to greet each other, make promises, give vague answers and tell lies. New meanings and syntax constantly appear in natural languages and there is a gradual change of e.g. word meanings. A sentence from a spoken language can have several possible meanings. For example, the sentence “I saw the dog with the telescope”, has two possible meanings (seeing a dog through a telescope or seeing a dog that owns a telescope). People use context and their knowledge of the world to tell the difference between these meanings. Natural languages thus depend on an ever changing culture, creating nuances and blends of meanings, for different people in different cultures and contexts. Programming languages don’t exhibit this kind of flexibility in interpretation. In programming languages, a line of code has a single meaning, so that the output can be reproduced with high fidelity.
People who start using a foreign language regularly (for example, after moving to a different country) often find themselves struggling to recall words when using their native language. Other common influences are the borrowing of words or collocations (two or more words that often go together). For example, Dutch non-native English speakers might insert English words, for which there is no literal translation, such as , into a Dutch conversation. Or they may find themselves using a literal translation of the collocation ‘taking a picture’ while speaking in their native language, even if their native language does not use the verb to express this action. Studies from the past couple of decades show that people show such an influence at all linguistic levels - as described above, they may borrow words or expressions from their second language, but they might also borrow grammatical structures or develop a non-native accent in their own native language.
The terms "surface layer" and "deep layer" refer to different levels that information goes through in the language production system. For example, imagine that you see a dog chasing a mailman. When you encode this information, you create a representation that includes three pieces of information: a dog, a mailman, and the action This information exists in the mind of the speaker as a "deep" structure. If you want to express this information linguistically, you can, for example, produce a sentence like "The dog is chasing the mailman." This is the "surface" layer: it consists of the words and sounds produced by a speaker (or writer) and perceived by a listener (or reader). You can also produce a sentence like "The mailman is being chased by a dog" to describe the same event -- here, the order in which you mention the two characters (the "surface" layer) is different from the first sentence, but both sentences are derived from the same "deep" representation. Linguists propose that you can perform movement operations to transform the information encoded in the "deep" layer into the "surface" layer, and refer to these movement operations as linguistic Linguistic rules are part of the grammar of a language and must be learned by speakers in order to produce grammatically correct sentences.
To skip the translation step early in the language learning process, it is helpful to visualize what it was like when these words were said in in the learner’s native language and link the response to the new words. The idea is to mimic how a child learns a new language. Another way to build a vocabulary quicker is by grouping things that are conceptually related and practicing them at the same time. For example, naming things and events related to transportation as one is getting home from work, or naming objects on the dinner table. The key is to make the new language making “direct sense” instead of trying to understand it through a familiar media such as the native language. In a bit more advanced stage of building a vocabulary, one can use a dictionary in the target language, such as Thesaurus in English, to find the meaning of new words, rather than a language-to-language dictionary.
The conventional method of building up a vocabulary from scratch is remembering the words in the target language by translating to one’s own language. This might be advantageous if the new language and the person’s mother tongue are related, such as Dutch and German, but proves too indirect for unrelated languages, as for English and Chinese for instance. The learning process becomes more efficient when the translation step is removed and the new words are directly linked to the actual objects and actions. Many highly skilled second language speakers frequently run into words whose exact translations do not even exist in their native language, demonstrating that those words were not learned by translation, but from context in the new language.
Among these methods are the Content-enriched English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction, the Cognitive Academic Language Approach (CALLA), and Sheltered content instruction....
Why do homophones exist? It seems much less confusing to have separate sounds for separate concepts. Linguists take sound change as an important factor that can lead to the existence of homophones. For instance, in the early 18th century the first letter of the English word KNIGHT was no longer pronounced, making it a homophone with the word NIGHT. Also language contact creates homophones. The English word DATE was relatively recently adopted into Dutch, becoming a homophone with the already existing word DEED. Some changes over time thus create new homophones, whereas other changes undo the homophonic status of a word. Now the Dutch verb form ZOUDT (would) is no longer commonly used, the similarly sounding noun ZOUT (salt) is losing its homophonic status.
There are different ideas about what makes a ‘good’ orthography. General principles are that it should consistently represent and the distinctive sound contrasts in the language, with the fewest possible symbols and conventions. However, few established orthographies stick to this ideal - you only have to look at English spelling to realise that! Compare, for instance, the pronunciations of and . Quirks and inconsistencies in orthographies can also have their own advantages, such as preserving historical information, highlighting cultural affiliations, and supporting dialect variation.