If the early Egyptians or Sumerians had critical theories about the writing of literature, these have not survived. From the time of classical Greece until the present day, however, Western criticism has been dominated by two opposing theories of the literary art, which might conveniently be called the expressive and constructive theories of composition.
Thus, at the beginning of Western literary criticism, the controversy already exists. Is the artist or writer a technician, like a cook or an engineer, who designs and constructs a sort of machine that will elicit an aesthetic response from his audience? Or is he a virtuoso who above all else expresses himself and, because he gives voice to the deepest realities of his own personality, generates a response from his readers because they admit some profound identification with him? This antithesis endures throughout Western European history Scholasticism versus Humanism, Classicism versus Romanticism, Cubism versus Expressionism and survives to this day in the common judgment of our contemporary artists and writers. It is surprising how few critics have declared that the antithesis is unreal, that a work of literary or plastic art is at once constructive and expressive, and that it must in fact be both.
When you feel your image is complete, we will sit together at a distance from your piece and look at it. The way art looks sitting on the table in front of you, and the way it looks from 2 feet can be quite different. This is another way that art therapy offers you a chance to look at your issues from a new perspective. I will ask you what the process of art making was like, what stood out to you, and what was surprising, pleasant, or difficult. I will also ask if you can explain the image’s meaning and the feelings you have as you view it. We can discuss my observations on the process as well. Below is an example of how our conversation about the image might evolve.
While you are choosing images and words and arranging them on the page, I am “witnessing.” Witnessing has three purposes: to note the process of art making, to assist if needed, and to give the gift of my full attention and observation. I notice if it takes you a long time to get started, or if you quickly dive in. I notice when you bite your lip, how you sit back and contemplate a particular image, and when you exhale and smile after gluing down the picture of the sunset. There are very few moments in life where someone offers you their complete presence, powers of observation, and attention when you are not performing for them. The art therapist’s job in witnessing is not to act, inject, think of what to say, or judge, but to be very present and attuned to you, your process, and your product. When everyone is at their best, this creates a sacred space that can empower you to be courageous in your art and exploration. When we discuss the image, I note my observations and help you ponder whether they have any bearing on the issues that brought you to therapy.
Our goals and your comfort level with art will influence where and how we get started. For people who are open to the idea of trying art therapy, but aren’t yet comfortable with art, I frequently start with a magazine photo collage. Choosing precut images and words feels less threatening than being asked to draw something. The images are already there, all you need to do is pick the ones that help describe your situation. If for example your goals are to decide whether or not to stay with your partner, and set better boundaries in relationships, I might ask you to take a few minutes to choose images that remind you of your relationship with your partner.
What are the roles of art in rebellion and liberation; are these roles similar in kind and in scale from person to population and why does this matter.
Literary criticism, as distinguished from scholarly research, is usually itself considered a form of literature. Some people find great critics as entertaining and stimulating as great poets, and theoretical treatises of literary aesthetics can be as exciting as novels. Aristotle, Longinus, and the Roman rhetorician and critic Quintilian are still read, although Renaissance critics like the once all-powerful Josephus Scaliger are forgotten by all but specialized scholars. Later critics, such as Poe, Sainte-Beuve, Taine, Vissarion Belinsky, Matthew Arnold, Walter Bagehot, Walter Pater, and George Saintsbury, are probably read more for themselves than for their literary judgments and for their general theorizing rather than for their applications (in the case of the first three, for instance, time has confounded almost all the evaluations they made of their contemporaries). The English critics have survived because they largely confined themselves to acknowledged masterpieces and general ideas. Perhaps literary criticism can really be read as a form of autobiography. Aestheticians of literature like I.A. Richards, Sir C.M. Bowra, Paul Valéry, Suzanne Langer, and Ernst Cassirer have had an influence beyond the narrow confines of literary scholarship and have played in our time something approaching the role of general philosophers. This has been true on the popular level as well. The Dane Georg Brandes, the Americans James Gibbons Huneker, H.L. Mencken, and Edmund Wilson these men have been social forces in their day. Literary criticism can play its role in social change. In Japan, the overthrow of the shogunate, the restoration of the emperor, and the profound change in the Japanese social sensibility begins with the literary criticism of Moto-ori Norinaga (1730-1801). The nineteenth-century revolution in theology resulted from the convergence of Darwinian theories of evolution and the technical and historical criticism of the Bible that scholars had undertaken. For many modern intellectuals, the literary quarterlies and weeklies, with their tireless discussions of the spiritual significance and formal characteristics of everything from the greatest masterpiece to the most ephemeral current production, can be said to have filled the place of religion, both as rite and dogma.
If, by examining the origins and functions of art, I am able to illustrate its necessity and inevitability in a free society, my hope is that this will move the reader to take up and champion the arts...
This is what inspired me to write this paper, but my intention is not to directly address, in depth, any of the many and various issues concerning arts.
She thus places these images within a larger socio-historical context to expand our understanding of what she prefers to call “social viewpoint, ” as opposed to “social realist,” prints by looking at them as multidimensional cultural artifacts....
The Western novel is a product of modern civilization, although in the Far East novels began a separate development as early as the tenth century. Extended prose works of complex interpersonal relations and motivations begin in seventeenth-century France with (1678) by Madame de Lafayette. Eighteenth-century France produced an immense number of novels dealing with love analysis but none to compare with Madame de Lafayettes until Pierre Choderlos de Laclos wrote (1782). This was, in form, an exchange of letters between two corrupters of youth; but, in intent, it was a savage satire of the ancient regime and a heart-rending psychological study. The English novel of the eighteenth century was less subtle, more robust vulgar in the best sense and is exemplified by Henry Fieldings (1749) and Laurence Sternes . The nineteenth century was the golden age of the novel. It became ever more profound, complex, and subtle (or, on the other hand, more popular, eventful, and sentimental). By the beginning of the twentieth century it had become the most common form of thoughtful reading matter and had replaced, for most educated people, religious, philosophical, and scientific works as a medium for the interpretation of life. By the late 1920s the novel had begun to show signs of decay as a form, and no works have since been produced to compare with the recent past. This may prove to be a temporarily barren period, or else the novel may be losing its energy as a narrative art form and in this sense giving way to the medium of film.