Rosa Parks (1913–2005) was already involved with the NAACP and voter registration activities before she became a symbol of the civil rights movement. She is pictured here with sociologist Charles Henry Parrish and educator Frederick D. Patterson, at a desegregation seminar at Highlander Folk School in New Market, Tennessee, in 1955.
This essay will argue that...
Social & Economic Inequality:
What was the problem?
How did the CRM try to tackle this?
Successes of the CRM?
Establishing contradiction or inconsistencies within factors
Establishing contradiction or inconsistencies between factors
The importance of factors in relation to the context
The overall impact/significance of the factors when taken together
The 1964 Civil Rights Act officially ended legal segregation and in theory meant black Americans lives would improve because...
The early 1960s saw civil rights veterans and union organizers joining students to both train people in the discipline of nonviolence and reproduce sit-ins across the country. Under the inspiration of Ella Baker, the SCLC sponsored the founding of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). In 1961 members of SNCC and CORE joined forces to reignite Freedom Rides in the South as a way to test the 1955 Browder decision that officially outlawed segregated interstate transportation. Students faced an overwhelming flourish of violent attacks by whites. Activists were beaten, riders were caught in burning buses, and it was all broadcast across the world. Freedom Riders had achieved success, but white resistance was resilient.
Sephira Bailey Shuttlesworth, a former teacher and elementary school principal of 23 years, was born in Jackson, Tennessee. In 2006, she married Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth, who played a strategic role in the civil rights movement alongside Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Mrs. Shuttlesworth shares insider information about the role, strategies and motives used by her late husband in the Birmingham while also taking a look at current challenges towards eliminating chaos and building community. She is a Union alumna and now serves as the leader of Mid-Michigan Leadership Academy in Lansing, MI.
Wait, what? Weren't things going peachy? Didn't the March on Washington mean everything was hunky dory? Wasn't the nation—white and Black—coming together, holding hands, and singing kumbaya? Hadn't Johnson's reforms proved that, after over two decades of persistent organized protest, equality had been won?
Well, not exactly. Actually, not at all.
At first glance, the Watts Riots appear to have been one big, violent contradiction, perhaps one of the greatest ironies in American history. At the very height of the Civil Rights Movement, when so much had begun to give way, Black communities rebelled, violently and en masse, against white authority. In 1965, many Americans, particularly whites, were shocked and dismayed by what appeared to be random acts of civil disobedience, destruction, and looting by Blacks in poor neighborhoods.
But the Watts Riots were surprising, not because they happened, but because they hadn't happened much, much sooner. The violence in Watts revealed frustrations brewing in Black communities, especially in inner-city communities in the North and the West where housing and employment discrimination, white flight, and racial bigotry kept people living in poverty.
So, no, equality hadn't been won. In fact, for many African Americans, equality—especially economic equality—seemed increasingly unattainable.
From this perspective, the second phase of the Civil Rights Movement, a period marked by militancy, calls for "Black power," and, at times, chaos and confusion, can be better understood. It's not always a clear-cut story, and certainly not a tale with good guys and bad guys—at least not in the way the first chapter of the Civil Rights Movement seems to be. But that's why we think this is such an important topic to dig into. (So dig, already.)
The civil rights movement was not only about stopping racial segregation amongst African Americans but also to challenge the terrible economic, political, and cultural consequences of that time....
The maintenance of white power had been pervasive and even innovative, and hence those fighting to get out from under its veil had to be equally unrelenting and improvisational in strategies and tactics. What is normally understood as the Civil Rights movement was in fact a grand struggle for freedom extending far beyond the valiant aims of legal rights and protection. From direct-action protests and boycotts to armed self-defense, from court cases to popular culture, freedom was in the air in ways that challenged white authority and even contested established black ways of doing things in moments of crisis.
The civil rights movement was a movement that held massive numbers of nonviolent protest against racial segregation and discrimination in America especially the southern states during the 1950’s and 60’s.
The impressive in the summer of 1963 has been remembered as one of the great successes of the Civil Rights Movement, a glorious high point in which a quarter of a million people—Black and white— to demonstrate for "freedom now."
Isn't it incredible how much had been accomplished by civil rights activists from to the 1963 March on Washington? Isn't it staggering just how much had been sacrificed, how high the stakes had been raised, and how widespread the movement had become?
Kennedy's successor, Lyndon Johnson, fought hard to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This was the most far-reaching and comprehensive civil rights legislation Congress had ever passed. It banned discrimination in public accommodations and the workplace but did not address police brutality or racist voting tests. To fight against black voter discrimination, the SCLC organized a march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama. The six hundred protestors reached the Pettus Bridge but were pushed back by police violence and tear gas. The attack was dubbed Bloody Sunday. President Johnson was ultimately forced into action, calling on Congress to pass the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
Explain your answer.
To what extent did the Civil Rights campaigns of the 1950s and 1960s result in significant improvements in the lives of black Americans?
Line of argument:
Why did the Civil Rights Movement start to gain momentum in the 1950s & 60s?
By 1968 the Civil Rights Movement had been instrumental in changing attitudes to black inequality and as a result the US Government had introduced legislation to end segregation, tackle political inequality and improve social and economic problems that black Americans faced.
However, despite these improvements, not all problems were tackled and debate still exists over how successful the Civil Rights Movement was.
The Civil Rights movement was based in the South of America, where the African-American population was concentrated and where racial inequality was most obvious....