The writing progress of students in the ELP program was compared to the performance of similar children in the same school district. In comparison to these control students, children who were taught by veteran ELP teachers made greater gains in writing. Their papers contained fewer spelling miscues, were longer, and better organized. These improvements were accomplished with just 1 year of instruction. It is likely that even greater gains would be realized if such instruction was provided on a consistent and regular basis each school year. For example, Mariage reported that 2 to 3 years of ELP instruction, starting in the primary grades, was enough to bring some students with special needs up to grade level performance.
Outstanding writing teachers not only recognize the importance of "a little love and understanding," they also stress the importance of tailoring instruction to meet the individual needs of children experiencing difficulty learning to write, including those with LD. In a study by Pressley et al., for example, outstanding kindergarten through 2nd grade literacy teachers reported that they provided qualitatively similar instruction for all students, but that children experiencing difficulty with literacy learning received extra teacher support. This included devoting more attention to the development of critical skills, more explicit teaching of these skills, and more individually guided assistance. This approach was illustrated in a qualitative study by Dahl and Freepon, where teachers provided extensive personalized assistance to weaker writers, including scaffolding and guidance designed to help them refine and extend their writing skills. For instance, struggling writers in these teachers' classrooms received additional support with spelling, as their teachers spent extra time explicitly teaching them about letter-sound relationships.
This same principle also applies to considerations about the role of meaning, process, and form in writing instruction since skilled writing is dependent on all three (Graham & Harris, 2000, 1994). Teachers do struggling writers no favor when they suggest, even implicitly, that one or more of these are unimportant. Likewise, the amount of emphasis placed on each area should be adjusted so that it is consistent with the needs of the child. For example, Juel (1988) found that some children who were poor writers had difficulties with both form (e.g., spelling) and process (e.g., content generation), whereas others had difficulties with just one or the other. Thus, some of the students in her study would have benefited from additional help in both areas, whereas other students needed help in only one.
A critical aspect of tailoring writing instruction to meet the needs of students with LD is finding the right balance between formal and informal instruction, as well as between meaning, process, and form. We contend that each of these factors should be emphasized when developing a writing program, but that teachers should adjust the emphasis placed on each, depending on an individual child's needs (Graham & Harris, 1997b, 1997c).
Unfortunately, not all the teachers who participated in the study made adaptations for struggling writers. Almost 20% made no adaptations, whereas another 24% reported only I or 2 adaptations. Furthermore, not all the reported adaptations, in our opinion, were positive ones. In comparison to their average writing classmates, for example, weaker writers in some teachers' classrooms were less likely to share their writing with peers, help others, select their own writing topics, or complete writing assignments at their own pace. Teachers are unlikely to maximize the writing success of students with LD and other struggling writers if no adjustments are made or if they make modifications that limit participation or reduce children's participation in decision making.
Whether your students are preparing to take standardized tests or you are walking them through how to write an essay, How To Teach Essay Writing To Adults the Persuasive or Argument Essay is a
Students analyze rhetorical strategies in online editorials, building knowledge of strategies and awareness of local and national issues. This lesson teaches students connections between subject, writer, and audience and how rhetorical strategies are used in everyday writing.
supports teaching critical thinking and analytical writing at the secondary level, across content area. This resource includes step-by-step processes, many examples, writing checklists, helpful tips, and black-line masters. It is perfect for teachers, parents, and students who want to strengthen their thinking and writing skills, better learn and retain information, and improve overall academic performance. After using this guide, students will be able to write clear, concise, analytical texts.
When teaching organization to beginning writers, a graphic organizer is almost essential. Eventually you teach students to create their own graphic organizers for writing, but to get students to that point, they need to work with a variety of teacher-provided graphic organizers.
At WritingFix, we have shared classroom ideas freely since 2001. Recently, we began asking the world to share back with us. We are seeking complete lessons, resources, and student samples, and we send complimentary copies of to teachers who share ideas that ultimately get posted at WritingFix.
The two compositions presented above were written by Arthur Dent 1, a 5th-grade child with a learning disability (LD). The first was written at the start of 2nd grade in response to a picture of a young girl showing her father a large fish she had caught. The second exposition was Arthur's written reply to his 5th-grade teacher's query, "Should children have to learn a second language?" Although these two compositions make it clear that Arthur has made some progress as a writer during the 3 intervening years, they also highlight several continuing problems. One, his responses are inordinately short, containing few ideas and little elaboration, and two, it is difficult to decipher his writing, because of spelling, punctuation, and capitalization miscues.
1 Feb 2012 of the Teaching Excellence in Adult Literacy (TEAL) Center. that precedes writing the first draft of an essay and then How To Teach Essay Writing To Adults revising the draft to.
Glenda Robertson, an Oklahoma teacher, shared this creative essay "frame" with us. We sent her the as our thanks for her being so willing to give back to our site. Shared ideas can be directed to: .