Out of the picture: Hispanics in the media / National Council of La Raza -- Hispanic voices: is the press listening? / Jorge Quiroga -- Distorted reality: Hispanic characters in TV entertainment / S. Robert Lichter and Daniel R. Amundson -- Visual retrospective: Latino film stars / Clara E. Rodriguez -- Citizen Chicano: the trials and titillations of ethnicity in the American cinema, 1935-1962 / Chon Noriega -- Stereotyping in films in general and of the Hispanic in particular / Charles Ramirez Berg -- Chicanas in film: history of an image / Carlos E. Cortes -- From assimilation to annihilation: Puerto Rican images in U.S. films / Richie Perez -- West side story: a Puerto Rican reading of "America" / Alberto Sandoval Sanchez -- Keeping it reel? films of the 1980s and 1990s / Clara E. Rodriguez -- From the margin to the center: Puerto Rican cinema in New York / Lillian Jimenez -- Unofficial stories: documentaries by Latinas and Latin American women / Liz Kotz -- Type and stereotype: Chicano images in film / Linda Williams -- Two film reviews: My family/mi familia and The Perez family / Santiago Nieves and Frank Algarin -- Hispanic-oriented media / Federico Subervi-Velez ... [et al.] -- Promoting analytical and critical viewing / Clara E. Rodriguez -- Questions and reflections about the readings in this book / Clara E. Rodriguez -- What we can do / Clara E. Rodriguez.
Thinking in terms of the previous outline and discussion of how women are portrayed in literature and what characteristics the stereotypes entail, the following questions/exercises are designed to focus on the details of this poem.
Theorizes that sexism against women is divided into hostile stereotypes (e.g., women want too much power) and benevolent ones (e.g., that women are pure and fragile). These stereotypes can be held simultaneously or independently. Benevolent stereotypes have higher endorsement due to their nicer nature, but have similar negative consequences.
Heilman, Madeline E. 2001. Description and prescription: How gender stereotypes prevent women’s ascent up the organizational ladder. The Journal of Social Issues 57:657–674. DOI:
Toward a planetary civil society / Rosa Linda Fregoso -- A glass half empty: Latina reproduction and public discourse / Leo R. Chavez -- Illegal status and social citizenship: thoughts on Mexican immigrants in a postnational world / Adelaida R. del Castillo –"Looking like a lesbian": the organization of sexual monitoring at the United States-Mexican border / Eithne Luibheid -- The value of immigrant life / Jonathan Xavier Inda […]-- "En el norte la mujer manda": gender, generation, and geography in a Mexican transnational community / Jennifer S. Hirsch -- Unruly passions: poetics, performance, and gender in the Ranchera song / Olga Nájera-Ramírez -- Becoming Selena, becoming Latina / Deborah Paredez -- Cyberbrides and global imaginaries: Mexican women's turn from the national to the foreign / Felicity Schaeffer-Grabiel.
Proposes that prejudice against female leaders is driven by the fact that stereotypes for women are incongruent with the traits that are generally attributed to successful leaders, and when women display the correct behavior for a leader they are also seen as less suitable.
The characters in John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath are examples of the typical masculine and feminine groups. However, the book also contains models of those who do not fit the stereotypes. In general, the book contains two types of portrayals of both men and women....
Given the history of white-black relations in America, much of the core theory and research on prejudice and stereotyping focuses on whites’ feelings of prejudice toward and stereotypes of African Americans. In many texts, models of white Americans’ prejudice toward and stereotypes of African Americans are presented as core theories of prejudice and stereotypes toward all groups. This can be seen in adaptation of models of racial prejudice to other domains (e.g., modern sexism, ambivalent sexism theory). Importantly, however, the studies of sexism, heterosexism, and ageism have emerged with some similarities and many important distinctions from theory and research on racial prejudice and stereotypes. This section considers relevant contemporary work on sexism, heterosexism, and ageism.
A review article arguing that descriptive and prescriptive stereotypes conspire to keep women from advancing in the workplace despite competence, since women are stereotyped to be naturally incompatible with successful work. Violations of these stereotypes are punished.
Stereotypes steer individual's perceptions of a group of people in a certain way, usually negative, and generalize that opinion to all members of the group.
It is through theirpreservation in works of art that weknow what the stereotypes andarchetypes have been and are; in turn,knowing the images influences our viewof reality and even our behavior.10While certain characteristics prevail in most of the literary stereotypes of women: formlessness, passivity, subordination, selflessness, narrowness of character, etc., the following outline wil help to further identify the archetypes.
Rudman, Laurie A., and Kimberly Fairchild. 2004. Reactions to counterstereotypic behavior: The role of backlash in cultural stereotype maintenance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 87:157–176. DOI:
On the other side of Latin America in Chile, Gabriela Mistral writes in vivid metaphors of love, birth and pregnancy, revealing a Nobel prize poet totally frustrated by her lack of motherhood.One hopes that by learning about stereotypes and seeing them in very concrete form, students will be encouraged to understand the ludicrousness of restricting women (and ultimately men also) to narrow roles, both in literary forms and in life.