The Sound of Waves essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of The Sound of Waves by Yukio Mishima.
Explain that all the waves continued to move outward and would have continued in this manner unless they hit an object of a different density, especially a solid.
A large number of interesting problems involve waves that are not plane, for example radiation from vibrating bodies, scattering by obstacles, and diffraction. The method of basing the analysis on the displacement becomes very inconvenient, since it is a vector, so that all three components have to be considered. The way out of this is to use a new function, the φ, whose spatial derivatives are the negative components of the velocity. Now the wave can once more be described in terms of a single quantity. If we also use harmonic waves, all the magnitudes can be related to one another as in the plane-wave case, but now some of them are vectors. In particular, the wave vector k is the wave number k times a unit vector normal to the wavefront (in the direction of the ray). Since the analysis uses vector calculus, we shall not give it here, but merely quote some interesting deductions from the analysis.
However, when a wind blows, it is retarded at the surface--a sort of boundary layer effect--and increases in speed aloft. This is a , that can be expressed by a gradient dU/dy, where U is the wind speed and y is the height. A wavefront propagating with the wind will have its top inclined forward, so it will tend to return to the surface, while a wavefront propagating against the wind will be deflected upwards. This is a much better explanation of the fact that sounds can be heard better downwind than upwind.
When considering the Doppler effect, we assumed that the waves always moved with the phase velocity c in the air, independently of the movement of the source. When a wind blows, the waves are carried with the air, . It is a common observation that sounds can be heard better downwind of the source than upwind, or that 'the wind carries the sound.' Indeed it does, but this cannot be the explanation for this observation, since wind speeds are always much less than the speed of sound, usually less than a twentieth of the sound speed of 750 mph. In fact, a constant wind will have very little effect on the propagation of sound, not even affecting the frequency heard in different directions.
The force on a thin sheet of gas of thickness dx is the difference in the pressures on the two sides of the sheet. This must equal the mass of the sheet times its acceleration, by Newton's Second Law. Since we know the difference in the condensation on the two sides of the sheet, which will be the second derivative of the displacement with respect to x, times the thickness dx, we will know the pressure difference if we know how condensation is related to pressure. In an ideal gas, the pressure is proportional to the density when the temperature is held constant, so in this case the fractional change in pressure will be equal to the fractional change in density, or the condensation. If we let p denote the change in pressure, then p = p0s. The pressure variations in a sound wave are so rapid, however, that there is no time to reach isothermal conditions. What occurs is an process in which the pressure difference is greater due to the heating or cooling of the gas as it is compressed or expanded. In an adiabatic process, p = γp0s instead. γ is the ratio of the specific heat at constant volume to the specific heat at constant pressure. This was a problem that baffled Newton, when the calculated and measured speeds of sound did not agree, and was only settled later by Laplace.
Compare and contrast light and sound waves in an essay of 1500 words, double spaced, in standard fonts, and provide credible references in the APA format.
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They should understand that when a vibration travels through the air and into the ear canal it vibrates the eardrum, and they should understand that the vibration of vocal chords creates our voice.
Tell students that through some in-class experiments they are going to learn about sound as a form of energy and how that energy travels.
A striking passage in J. Martin Daughtry’s “Listening to War: Sound, Music, Trauma, and Survival in Wartime Iraq” (Oxford) evokes the sound of the battlefield in the most recent Iraq war:
Daughtry underscores something crucial about the nature of sound and, by extension, of music: we listen not only with our ears but also with our body. We flinch against loud sounds before the conscious brain begins to try to understand them. It is therefore a mistake to place “music” and “violence” in separate categories; as Daughtry writes, sound itself can be a form of violence. Detonating shells set off supersonic blast waves that slow down and become sound waves; such waves have been linked to traumatic brain injury, once known as shell shock. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder are often triggered by sonic signals; New York residents experienced this after September 11th, when a popped tire would make everyone jump.
Sound is all the more potent because it is inescapable: it saturates a space and can pass through walls. Quignard—a novelist and essayist of an oblique, aphoristic bent—writes:
All sound is the invisible in the form of a piercer of envelopes. Whether it be bodies, rooms, apartments, castles, fortified cities. Immaterial, it breaks all barriers. . . . Hearing is not like seeing. What is seen can be abolished by the eyelids, can be stopped by partitions or curtains, can be rendered immediately inaccessible by walls. What is heard knows neither eyelids, nor partitions, neither curtains, nor walls. . . . Sound rushes in. It violates.
Lily Hirsch’s “Music in American Crime Prevention and Punishment” (Michigan) explores how divergences in taste can be exploited for purposes of social control. In 1985, the managers of a number of 7-Eleven stores in British Columbia began playing classical and easy-listening music in their parking lots to drive away loitering teen-agers. The idea was that young people would find such a soundtrack insufferably uncool. The 7-Eleven company then applied this practice across North America, and it soon spread to other commercial spaces. To the chagrin of many classical-music fans, especially the lonely younger ones, it seems to work. This is an inversion of the concept of Muzak, which was invented to give a pleasant sonic veneer to public settings. Here instrumental music becomes a repellent.