Contrary to popular belief, the underdog win was not only the result of a miracle; it was also the result of a hard-working team led by Coach Herb Brooks.
The professional incentives for academic scientists to assert their elite status are perverse and crazy, and promotion and tenure decisions focus above all on how many research dollars you bring in, how many articles you get published, and how often those articles are cited in other articles.
One of my favorite test cases for beliefs in the supernatural is the tale ofJoseph Smith, founder of Mormonism. Smith claimed to have been given gold platesby an angel, which he translated to become the . Theinteresting thing is that he showed the plates to witnesses, who swore innotarized statements that they had seen them. Here we have an alleged miracle,not 2,000 years ago in Biblical times, but right here in the United States,recorded in American legal documents. The interesting thing here is that, apartfrom Mormons, most devout believers in miracles reject this account.
And here we get down to the reason most scientists rejectmiracles. The vast majority of alleged miracle accounts are untrustworthy. Ifyou're inclined to take offense at that remark, go look at any magazine put outby a religious denomination that accepts miracles, say .Almost invariably, the magazine will require that an alleged account of amiracle be certified by a minister. Out of thousands of alleged cures atLourdes, the Catholic Church accepts only a few dozen as meeting its criteriafor miracles. Why this skepticism on the part of religious bodies ? Because they themselves have found out the hard waythat the vast majority of alleged miracle accounts are untrustworthy, even thoseclaimed by their own adherents.
Therefore, these verses must be reflected on and used as opportunities to open the intellectual and spiritual windows to reach an understanding of God’s Oneness, Glory and Transcendence. It is no wonder that the 14th Century scholar Al-Shatibi was against using science, as it removes the reader away from this necessary reflection:
Maybe this event is a real miracle, triggered by some conscious entitytotally outside the laws of nature. But even if it is, even if a scientistpersonally believes it to be one, he will still be open to the possibility thathe might be wrong, and that an explanation within the laws of nature might justbe discovered.
And another: AT&T’s Bell Labs, where the transistor effect was discovered, could use the demands (and investments) of the Army Signal Corps for smaller and more reliable battlefield communication technologies to improve scientific understanding of semiconducting materials as well as the reliability and performance of transistors. It was military purchases that kept the new transistor, semiconductor, and integrated-circuit industries afloat in the early and mid-1950s. As historian Thomas Misa explained in of DOD’s role in stimulating the development of transistors: “By subsidizing engineering development and the construction of manufacturing facilities ... the military catalyzed the establishment of an industrial base” — helping to create the technological and industrial backbone for the information age. And new weapons such as missile systems and ever-more powerful nuclear warheads continued to drive the development of and demand for increasingly sophisticated and reliable electronic components such as microprocessors and supercomputers.
In Chapter Four of , Keith Parsons defends the dictum that extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence as part of a general critique of miracle claims which aims to defend naturalism as a rational operating philosophy against potential defeaters. In this defense of miracle claims Don McIntosh argues, first, that for any unknown the burden of proof falls equally upon naturalists and supernaturalists; second, to repudiate all miracle claims in one fell swoop with a mere presumption of naturalism renders naturalism unfalsifiable and unscientific; and third, estimating the prior probability of miracles introduces an element of subjectivity that makes any general probabilistic argument against them suspect. These points leave open the possibility of confirming specific miracle claims on the basis of historical evidence and eyewitness testimony.
Using the simplified definition of a "miracle" as an event which violates a law of nature, Drange investigates the relation between science and miracles. He argues that scientists, as scientists, can't believe that such events ever occur, but leaves open whether they could consistently believe in miracles apart from their scientific work. If they do, it would only be in virtue of having compartmentalized minds.
However, one of the things about miracles is that they need interpreting; and rationally, if we look, for example, at John’s gospel where he calls the miracles he includes ‘signs’ and then read the verse where the author clearly writes: ‘These things are written that you may believe’ we have got to be sceptical about their absolute veracity.
Chet Raymo, author of Miracles and Explanations, offers insight on how science and religion are closely related while David Ludden, author of “Teaching Evolution at a Christian College”, declares that science and religion are too contradicting from one another and that people are unwilling to open their minds to new ideas once they have established their beliefs (Raymo & Ludden, 2011).
In this highly original and challenging essay, Raymond Bradley develops an argument that all religions are probably false inspired by David Hume's famous discussion of the 'contrary miracles' of rival religions. According to Bradley's argument from contrariety, any one of the vast numbers of religions ever conceived (or to be conceived) makes factual claims contradicted by the claims of all of the other religions. Moreover, the claims of any particular religion are generally as well-attested as the claims of all of the others. Consequently, given the "weight" of the "evidence" of all of the other religions, the probability that the claims of any one religion are true is exceedingly low. From this it follows that all religions are probably false.