He identified science’s areas of expertise as empiricalquestions about the constitution of the universe, and religion’sdomains of expertise as ethical values and spiritual meaning. NOMA isboth descriptive and normative: religious leaders should refrain frommaking factual claims about, for instance, evolutionary theory, justas scientists should not claim insight on moral matters. Gould heldthat there might be interactions at the borders of each magisterium,such as our responsibility toward other creatures. One obvious problemwith the independence model is that if religion were barred frommaking any statement of fact it would be difficult to justify theclaims of value and ethics, e.g., one could not argue that one shouldlove one’s neighbor because it pleases the creator (Worrall2004). Moreover, religions do seem to make empirical claims, forexample, that Jesus appeared after his death or that the early Hebrewspassed through the parted waters of the Red Sea.
34. Possible Solutions to the Brain Drain Problem. The national and international policies until the late 1980s focused on preventing or regulating flow of skills. Later the flow of skills was accepted as a norm and organising the skill abroad was added as a new option. The policies applied in the Muslim countries-of-origin to tackle the brain-drain should involve following two options:-
a. Recuperating people (persuading individuals to return home i.e. Brain Gain)
b. Recuperating skills (organising those abroad into a network i.e. Diaspora Option).
c. Conditions. There are definitely no quick fixes to stop brain drains because success depends very much indeed on the level of economic, scientific and technological development of each country and on political leaders taking a long-term view of the whole thing. These conditions are so far absent in most of the Muslim countries. The return-home policies are very long-term operations that can only work when the country-of-origin can offer prospective returnees satisfactory career conditions in their field. This supposes a high level of development. The solutions can only work under certain conditions.
(1) First, there has to be a sizeable scientific and technical or industrial community in the country-of-origin.
(2) There has to be long-term political backing for the idea.
(3) Finally, the administrative and financial resources to organise such networks and keep them going must be available.
11. Leaving this aside, let us consider the scientific facts in the Holy Quran. It is indicated that the earth was previously a part of the sun and after its separation; it became a habitable place for humanity, as mentioned in Surah 21, Ayat 30. That the matter is made up of sub atomic particles (Surah, 10, Ayat 61). That the embryo in the mother’s womb in enclosed by 3 epithelial coverings (Surah 39, Ayat 6). That each human being has a unique fingerprint (Surah 75, Ayat 4) etc. etc. There are thousands of other scientific facts in the Holy Quran.
Comparative essay on islam vs science; Another cool blog post example. It's easy to take the wonders of modern scienceâgene National Geographic.
Free Essays on Islam And Science ï»¿ Module code and title- FC005 Introduction to Social Science Type of assignment- Essay Assignment question- âWhy.
28. Will to Struggle. The vibrant societies have a will to live and struggle for a better place in the world. Choosing the right direction with appropriate methodology to direct the struggle is important. Being a Muslim the only way to solve our problems and also to achieve progress is to revive our true faith in Islam, to reduce our dependence on the West. We should concentrate our efforts on implementing the complete code of Islam in every walk of life, and in all spheres of social life. So we can say with conviction that the survival of Muslims lies in their religion itself and not in denying its universal appeal.
27. After the Second World War several independent Muslim states appeared on the map of the world, and it seemed that the Muslims would soon take strides leading to a fresh efflorescence of its culture and civilization. But in the post-independence period, one could clearly see dearth of creative energy and lack of intellectual courage. This led many to conclude that perhaps the Islam as a religion was the basic cause of this decay. This misrepresentation of Islam that has found new height after the September 11 can be summarized in the following paragraphs:-
a. Extremism. Extremism and unaccommodating attitude towards other religions or communities as taught in the madrassas and so called Islamic organizations in countries like Yemen, Sudan, Algeria, Afghanistan etc present a wrong image of Islam to the world. The Islamic world faces a monolithic wall of suspicion and fear regarding the alleged nature of Islamic resurgence and activism, which is distorted as fundamentalism and terrorism. This is partly due to disinformation campaign fostered world wide against Islam and partly due to our own misinterpretation of Islam.
b. Islam and Muslims in the Media. Media coverage of Islam is on the rise. The tone and substance of such coverage, however, leaves many Muslims concerned about the negative image that is being relayed to Western public. However, it is important to note that, in almost all cases, negative coverage takes the form of sensational reporting on “exotic or violent behavioural attributes of individuals or groups of individuals” . Objective analyses are usually lacking and whenever Islam’s teachings and dictates are cited, in order to give the appearance of objectivity, they are taken out of context. The real damage is done when the writer, with superficial and sometimes biased notion of Islam, claims authority and seeks justification through misguided reading or interpretation of Quran or Hadith.
c. Generalising Islamic Label. At present the major flash points happen to be in Muslim majority areas. The violence in Muslim countries is mostly related to internal problems; their struggles are not over any religious issue. In Dagestan, Grozny, and Kashmir, the fighters are being called Muslim rebels though their cause is not just based on religion. In Afghanistan in-groups struggle for control of the country has nothing to do with Islam; they fight among themselves because they are hostile to one another but still, they are portrayed as fighters for Islam.
d. Western Culture/Values. The fallacy of the west regarding their own civilization as the yardstick to judge the whole world has led them to believe anything not western to be backward.
e. Civilisation Clash. In the words of Samuel P. Huntington of Harvard University, “the next world war, if there is one, will be a war between civilisations ”. He maintains that differences among civilizations are basic, involving history, language, culture, tradition and, most importantly, religion. The united efforts of other civilisations are likely to be directed in abolishing Islam as a religion and civilisation.
f. Backwardness. Muslim world as a whole suffers from lack of development and backwardness, particularly in the fields of Industry, management and science. Despite their vast natural wealth, talent and 30-50 years of independence many Muslim countries could not progress at the desired pace. Though these conditions are after effects of the colonial misrule, the results are wrongly related by the West to the religion itself.
In 1995 the Japanese scientists Shigeru Kondo and Rihito Asai applied Turing's equations to the beautiful tropical angelfish Pomacanthus imperator, which displays striking yellow and purple stripes. Turing's model made a surprising prediction: the stripes of the angelfish move along its body (unlike those on an adult zebra, for example, which are fixed).
Initially, Arab Muslims themselves did not seem to care much about the translation movement and the study of science, feeling that they had “no ethnic or historical stake in it,” as Gutas explains. This began to change during the reign of al-Mamun (died 833), the seventh Abbasid caliph. For the purposes of opposing the Byzantine Empire, al-Mamun reoriented the translation movement as a means to recovering Greek, rather than Persian, learning. In the eyes of Abbasid Muslims of this era, the ancient Greeks did not have a pristine reputation — they were not Muslims, after all — but at least they were not tainted with Christianity. The fact that the hated Christian Byzantines did not embrace the ancient Greeks, though, led the Abbasids to warm to them. This philhellenism in the centuries after al-Mamun marked a prideful distinction between the Arabs — who considered themselves “champions of the truth,” as Gutas puts it — and their benighted Christian contemporaries. One Arab philosopher, al-Kindi (died 870), even devised a genealogy that presented Yunan, the ancestor of the ancient Greeks, as the brother of Qahtan, the ancestor of the Arabs.