or much of human history, technology advanced through craftsmanship and trial-and-error tinkering, with little theoretical understanding. The systematic study of nature — what we today call science — was a distinct domain, making little or no contribution to technological development. Yet technology has contributed in obvious ways to scientific advance for centuries, as practical tools such as lenses, compasses, and clocks allowed scientists to study nature with ever greater accuracy and resolution. The relationship only started to swing both ways, with science contributing to technological advancement as well as benefiting from it, in the nineteenth century as, for example, organic chemistry both emerged from and found application in the German dye-making industry.
Admitting refugees is humane, but it lets such persons flee their own nationalproblems and does not contribute to any long term solutions in the nationsfrom which they emigrate.
lmost immediately after World War II, the Department of War — soon renamed the Department of Defense — began to harness together the complete set of players necessary to ensure the United States would have all the technologies needed to win the Cold War. This is what President Eisenhower, in 1961, and what today would be termed, more broadly, the “national innovation system.” It includes everything from university laboratories and scientists, to the small and large companies that develop and commercialize innovations, to the users of those innovations — in this case, the military itself. DOD was able to catalyze rapid innovation because money was, more or less, no object; the mission — ensuring that America’s military technologies were better than anyone else’s — was all that mattered.
At the same time, protected from both the logic of the marketplace and the capriciousness of politics by the imperative of national defense, DOD was a demanding customer for some of the most advanced technological products that high-tech corporations could produce. For example, the first digital computer — built in the mid-1940s to calculate the trajectories of artillery shells and used to design the first hydrogen bomb — cost about $500,000 (around $4.7 million today), operated billions of times more slowly than modern computers, took up the space of a small bus, and had no immediate commercial application. Who but the Pentagon would buy such a crazy thing? But DOD also supported the science needed to keep innovation going. In the late 1950s and well into the 1960s, as the role for computers in military affairs was growing but the science wasn’t keeping up, DOD’s Advanced Research Projects Agency essentially created computer science as an academic discipline by funding work at M.I.T., Carnegie Mellon, Stanford, and other institutions.
Lessons: What ground of lamentation is it, and how surprising that the far greatest part of those who profess the name of Christ, and the Scriptures to be His Word, have, notwithstanding, so little of Him in their religion, and are such strangers to the doctrine of faith in His blood for salvation. From what hath been said, many professors of religion might be easily convinced, did they yield to the evidence of it, that they have not the true faith of the gospel, but are still held in the chains of unbelief and condemnation!
Emissions reductions and increases in the use of energy-efficient technologies are strongly needed.
F) Conservation of local flora, fauna and natural habitats through offering conservation advice on development proposals, planning strategies and environmental impact assessment, law enforcement, research and implementing biodiversity conservation plans.
G) Conducting regular ecological surveys to take inventory and update the status of biodiversity assets to establish an ecological database
Soil conservation is important to make sure that we have the land we need to live on.
The fruits of curiosity-driven scientific exploration into the unknown have often been magnificent. The recent discovery of gravitational waves — an experimental confirmation of Einstein’s theoretical work from a century earlier — provided a high-publicity culmination of billions of dollars of public spending and decades of research by large teams of scientists. Multi-billion dollar investments in space exploration have yielded similarly startling knowledge about our solar system, such as the recent evidence of flowing water on Mars. And, speaking of startling, anthropologists and geneticists have used genome-sequencing technologies to offer evidence that early humans interbred with two other hominin species, Neanderthals and Denisovans. Such discoveries heighten our sense of wonder about the universe and about ourselves.
Is notsaving nature, thereby preventing hunting, harvesting, or development bythose who need the produce of that land to put food in their mouths, almostlike killing?
Today, DOD continues to push rapid innovation in select areas, including robotics (especially for drone warfare) and human enhancement (for example, to improve the battlefield performance of soldiers). But through a combination of several factors — including excessive bureaucratic growth, interference from Congress, and long-term commitments to hugely expensive and troubled weapons systems with little civilian spillover potential, such as missile defense and the F-35 joint strike fighter — the Pentagon’s creativity and productivity as an innovator .
Congress decidesnot to pass a national health care program that would subsidize medicalinsurance for some now uninsured, who cannot otherwise afford it; and somesuch persons will, in result, fail to get, timely medical care and dieof preventable diseases.
An increased recycling rate would also reduce Co2 carbon dioxide levels helping ocean conservation, Water conservation, protection of all life, flora + fauna on Earth = human protection, conservation of all water on Earth = human protection, protecting natural resources equals the protection of the life of our children, conservation of all soil on Earth = human protection through affordable conservation education online to keep nature beautiful.
Such goal-driven industrial policies are supposed to be the stuff of Soviet five-year plans, not market-based democracies, and neither scientists nor policymakers have had much of an appetite for recognizing DOD’s role in creating the foundations of our modern economy and society. Vannevar Bush’s beautiful lie has been a much more appealing explanation, ideologically and politically. Not everyone, however, has been fooled.
All money budgeted for the National Endowmentfor the Humanities, and almost all that budgeted for the National ScienceFoundation, could be spent to prevent the deaths of babies that die frommalnutrition.