However, one common element that is adhered to in this writing format is using author name/date system when citing as reference books, articles and other documents.
Like the APA style, uses an in-text citation and bibliography at the end of the essay.
All of the most common styles list every source used in a document at the end, in a reference list or bibliography (see for the difference between these).
Vancouver style is sometimes used in science journals, for example. This style uses a number to represent each source, and lists the sources in the reference list in the order they were used.
There are other differences between these two styles: APA gives first intials whereas MLA uses full first names; MLA includes the medium at the end of the entry. When formatting a reference, follow the style you have been set closely.
Harvard referencing style (also known as author-date style) is a generic description for any that uses in-text citations with an author and date. In that sense, is a type of Harvard referencing. However, many individual styles describe themselves as Harvard. They vary from source to source in small details (such as reference punctuation).
The Harvard Referencing System is one of the preferred layouts for these references. It is a relatively strict way of arranging the bibliographical information.
If you have been instructed to use Harvard style, the Australian Style manual for authors, editors and printers offers the most common and consistent description. It is summarised in brief below. Your course, department, school, or institute may prescribe specific conventions, and their recommendations supersede these instructions.
If you are new to referencing, it is strongly recommended that you first read , and have familiarity with a more common style (e.g. ), before reading this page.