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Oxford: Oxford University Press.

For this the required elements for a reference are:

, Year of reporting (in square brackets where there is no volume, or round brackets as indicated by the reference you are using) abbreviation for the law reporting series, part number/case number/page reference if available.

In all cases your course work will be assessed not just on it's content but on where that content has come from. Tutors are interested in WHERE you have found your information. For this reason it is very important to reference your work, to show what you have been reading, whose work you are drawing on. The generally accepted method for doing this is the Harvard System. A simple Google search will provide you with many helpful guidelines to this referencing system.

The first time you mention the film, cite the film title, director and date, for example:

London: Open University in assoc.

For foreign-titled films, give the English title the first time you cite them, for example:

Wikipedia is a free-to-access encyclopaedia site that is being developed by its readers. This means that, in theory, you too could contribute to it; equally, it means that you should check against other sources any statements which look inaccurate. Normally you are safe using Wikipedia to find out a name or a date or a definition, but if you find something in Wikipedia that is going to be central to your argument in an essay or presentation, check it in an equivalent written source before you use it. The Library subscribes to a national database of sites of academic interest called ‘.’ It includes sites in Modern Languages and Film Studies (Film appears as a sub-heading under each language in the browse categories). It has the advantage that the sites have been selected for their relevance and evaluated against criteria such as professional presentation and the citation of sources.

For other exercises (for instance a literature or film essay or presentation) you will be encouraged to use the Internet only with discerning care! This is because the essence of university study is to engage with professionally researched academic argument and opinion. The books on your bibliographies have been ‘refereed’ before publication (that is experts in the field have given advice on whether, and in what form, they should be published). Most sites which appear on the Internet have not been ‘refereed’, and anybody (including students and non-specialists) can post their opinions about an author, film or cultural topic on the Web. You may therefore lose marks if you quote from non-academic websites in an academic essay. Of course, the Internet is useful for orientating yourself quickly in an unfamiliar subject, or for finding out background information (Which films did Louis Malle make? Which other authors apart from Hugo belonged to the French Romantic movement? An article I’ve read mentions Pietism: What was that?). Your tutors use the Internet in this way, too.

Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

If you cite inappropriate websites, for instance those with little information value or whose factual accuracy cannot be guaranteed, or sites that are not relevant to your topic, or if you use the material contained in websites uncritically, your tutor will deduct marks. This is made clear in the assessment criteria for coursework essays and applies equally to seminar presentations. If you copy material from a website without using quotation marks or a footnote to indicate that the words or ideas are not yours, this will be treated in the same way as other forms of plagiarism (see the information on plagiarism in the Section 6.6 of the ).

The road to serfdom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

The most recent being BS ISO 690:2010 Information and documentation - guidelines for bibliographic references and citations to information resources and Harvard style conventions currently being followed in UK Universities.
If you wish to re-use the Guide you may do so under the terms of the as long as your use is restricted to non-commercial purposes and the source is acknowledged.

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Beyond the road to serfdom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website

These can be accessed on the University website under the section for the Academic Office.

How do I print this guide?
You can open and print individual sections
(.pdf)
(.pdf)

Additional help
We have also produced a (.pdf) which covers the basics of Harvard Referencing.

Availablethrough: Anglia Ruskin University Library website

general background reading to familiarise yourself with the topic.

An annotated bibliography includes the full reference to sources with the addition of notes, which summarise and evaluate the source and will be of variable length, depending on the assessment this may be an independent project or part of a larger research project.

Is referencing included in the Word Count?
Check the section 6.69 for details of what is excluded from the word count of a submission.

Available through: AngliaRuskin University Library website


Remember is to be consistent in the way you record your references.

Reference List or Bibliography: What's the difference?
A Reference List includes details for everything that you cite in within your assignment.

Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website

This gives the full details for the information source so that it can be traced by anyone who reads your work.
Evidence must be from authoritive sources!

The Harvard System
There are many systems for the citation of references.
Most Faculties at Anglia Ruskin University expect students to use the Harvard style of referencing -which is an author and date system.

A two part reference system
In-text - citing within the assignment script- author's surname and year of publication
Reference list at the end of the assignment- full details of the document eg a book

In-text citation

[online via internal VLE] Anglia Ruskin University Available at:

This information can come from journal or newspaper articles, government reports, books or specific chapters of books, research dissertations or theses, or be material over the internet etc.

When you cite someone's work in the text of your assignment (an in-text citation), you also need to create a full reference.

[online] Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library

Students should however check the relevant guidelines for their subject within the Faculty.
For more information see the University Library serction on

NB: To assist students when they run their work through Turnitin, Double quotation marks are recommended.

Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library

You will find information relating to academic honesty in various student documentation including module guides and student handbooks.

The university has recently introduced to assist you in identifying where you have used original material so that you can ensure it is correctly referenced in your submission.

This is supported by the University policy relating to academic honesty.

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