This is perhaps the most ridiculous myth of all. While the closed, secretive that fostered the development of secret criminal societies such as the became commonplace with the and Spanish rule during the sixteenth century, and though banditry in the countryside increased over time, the Mafia as organized crime (not just a Sicilian word having other meanings) did not exist until late in the eighteenth century at the very earliest. Only fantasists believe that it originated during the , a revolt organized by the nobility, in 1282. Phenomena such as widespread and professional incompetence, and the overuse of have helped it along by discouraging transparency at every level of the economy. Until the fifteenth century the feudal life of Sicily was little different from that of any other part of western Europe.
With the death of Calogero Vizzini, the Mafia slid into the realm ofwhat Sicily's mafiosi later derided as "gangsterism," a more recklessAmerican style of crime. In 1957, the Sicilian Mafia re-established ties withtheir brethren in the United States and Canada. It was Lucky Luciano, of allpeople, who orchestrated the alliance. Unlike Vizzini and his generation, the new Sicilian "men of honor" were (uncouth people) who made no pretension whatsoever at being gentlemen. Whereas, in public at least, Vizzini and people like him maintained a veneer of civility, and might evenpass for dignified country squires, it was clear that newcomers like Giuseppe Genco Russo, Michele Greco and Luciano Leggio, though (sly) in certain respects, were essentially vulgar by nature. "Men of honor" and the "code of honor," if either had ever existed in fact, vanished in a flurry of murders. By the 1970s, even women and children were not spared in the carnage.
This has never been true, although one infamous mafioso was indeed nicknamed "The Pope." Vizzini, Genco Russo, Greco, Riina, , and (now) Messina Denaro never controlled the entire Sicilian Mafia, which has been compared to a hydra or octopus. At best, they briefly, informally oversaw the or "commission" that administers it loosely and collectively, but which would never risk regular meetings. There is not, and never has been, a true ("head of heads") of the Mafia or the Camorra (the Neapolitan brand of organized crime) in the manner of a Pope, CEO or general at the head of a rigidly structured organization. It is for this reason that "decapitation" is impossible. Italian investigators and prosecutors know this, yet they also know that less-important mafia bosses tacitly defer to more powerful ones, especially in certain matters involving foreign (international) business or, for example, the murder of a high-profile figure like a judge or senator. Within each or "cell," of course, there are ranks.
Some countries are struggling with an increase in the rate of crime. Many people think that having more police on the streets is the only way to reduce crime.
How does such an organization survive into the twenty-first century? It has a great deal to do with social factors - things like high unemployment, widespread lack of confidence in the competence of law enforcement authorities, distrust of the state. But the general secretiveness of the people is one of the main reasons organised crime is still so powerful in the Italian South, where common folk often seem suspicious of even the most ordinary social forces. The Italian ethos is based on the realities of everyday life: Italians presume that their elected leaders are thieves motivated by greed. Businessmen presume that associates will steal at the first opportunity. Labor unions presume that employers will seek to exploit employees whenever possible. Spouses presume that marital infidelity is simply a question of human nature, and even use a particular word, to describe cuckolded husbands.
Dangers of Working in Public Places
Convenience stores are a way of life in the United States now days. They are on just about every corner you come to. The work convenience means "something conductive to comfort or ease ?, and that's what it is, comfort. Instead of going to different stores to get things, you can pick up pretty much everything you need right there. They have things you night run out of at night when other stores are closed and you need it at that time.
However, there are dangers that come with working in them. You usually work by yourself. Robbery, theft, burglary, assault, and sometimes death occurs to the person working in them. The reason for this is that usually the person is working by him or herself and they are targets for the criminals that want quick easy money. This is usually the case.
Most of these crimes happen at night, because there are less people around and they are easy targets. If you are assaulted late at night and unable to get to a phone, you could die, and nobody would know until the next shift came in and found you.
Some risks factors can include handling large amounts of cash, which could attract robbery or theft. Being alone and isolated is also a factor. On-the-job homicides can and do occur in some situations.
Convenience store/ fast food cashiers are one of the top high-risk jobs to have according to surveys taken.
Robbery and burglary seem to be pretty common in these types of stores because they are easy targets. According to the news, you hear about them being held up at gunpoint or knifepoint quite often, sometimes with fatal results.
A few years back on the news there was a segment about a convenience store that was robbed and the cashier was killed. It happened on Interstate 64 in Indiana. He was working the late shift by himself and was shot and killed. There was no apparent reason for the shooting other than the men that
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Below is a collection of IELTS essay questions for the topic of crime and punishment. These questions have been written based on common issues in IELTS and some have been reported by students in their test.
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