In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using (and underline or italicize the title), as each version varies in its translation, followed by book (do not italicize or underline), chapter and verse. For example:
When I read non-fiction (such as the N.T. Wright work I am reading now), I appreciate it when the entire Bible passage is included in the body of the text, especially if the author is moving through several books, and especially if I am reading only to supplement my own knowledge of the subject, rather than learning it for the first time. If the author is presenting a new idea, and using a verse to support it, I will not accept their verse pulled out of context (literary or historical) until I have researched it for myself. Note: N.T. Wright does a great job with context.
I find that I put far greater importance on a verse I quote in my own work than I do when I see another author quote a verse. And I do find that I tend to skip over some of the longer verses they quote. I assume my readers do the same. The thing is, every Bible verse exists in the context in which it was written. When we pull it out and drop it into another work, the new work gives it context. The question the reader is trying to answer is why the author thought it important to put that verse there. If the comments around the verse don’t support the verse well enough, then the verse it out of place in the work and we would be better off ignoring the verse in the new work.
Maybe not absolutely, but conditionally in personal opinion, the Bible shows numerous examples of a woman’s inferiority to men, an assessment that has been translated into the cultures of generations....
Edith Hamilton, "recognized as the greatest woman Classicist", says that the Bible is the only book before our century that looked to women as human beings, no better nor worse than men (Tanner).
Good points, Steve. Of course, since I retired from medicine to try my hand at writing, I’ve noticed another Bible verse coming to the forefront in my thoughts–Ecclesiastes 12:12.
Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited in another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd. in" to indicate the source you actually consulted. For example:
The Bible also sometimes served as a model for the literary forms that we find in Shakespeare's plays. In the middle of King Lear we witness a world of cosmic and moral collapse. Evil characters prey like animals upon the weak. Images of bodily torture are a dominant image pattern. Physical elements like rain, hail, and lightning afflict suffering humanity (preeminently Lear on the heath). These image patterns and motifs are cut from the same imaginative cloth as the apocalyptic visions of the book of Revelation (someone has even written a whole book on the subject). In such instances we can speak of the Bible as a subtext for Shakespeare's play, showing Shakespeare how to achieve the dramatic effects that he wanted.
Linking fictional characters to characters in the Bible has universally appealed to writers in the Christian tradition as a way of supplying associations for literary characters. Once the link is established by way of allusion or parallel, what we know about the biblical character is immediately transferred to the fictional character. When Lady Macbeth attempts to pass off the murder of King Duncan with the nonchalant comment that "a little waters clears us of this deed.
Steve- Thanks for the reminder to be careful about checking Bible verse sources. Tom Blanchard’s experience made me laugh as I remembered the time I wrote a wrong verse on a painting.
10:29-31; Luke 12:6 virtually the same).
At a slightly more interpretive level, there are passages in which reference to the Bible is not strictly required to construe what Shakespeare has written, but where we are invited to see an allusion or echo. If we pick up on the reference, the detail in Shakespeare suddenly takes on depth of field. When Portia praises the quality of mercy in her famous encomium, she declares that mercy "droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven / Upon the place beneath" (The Merchant of Venice, 4.1.183-184). The statement makes sense on a purely natural level, but it packs a much bigger punch if we relate it to Jesus' statement that God "sendeth raine on the juste, & unjuste" (Matt.
Secondly, I believe that the pervasive presence of the Bible in Shakespeare's plays refutes two common fashions on the scholarly scene today. One is the myth that Shakespeare is a secular author. On the contrary, the biblical presence sends a signal about the intellectual allegiance of Shakespeare's plays. Secondly, it is not simply the English Bible but the Geneva Bible, specifically, that primarily appears in Shakespeare's plays.
Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials (or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials) in your citation. For example: