In the New York Review of Books of June 12, 1997, and in thefollowing issue on June 26, 1997, the esteemed Harvard paleontologist, Steven Jay Gouldattacked evolutionary psychology in two monumental articles. The first article was titled"Darwinian Fundamentalism," and the second was titled "Evolution: ThePleasures of Pluralism." In his first article he writes: "Moreover, alarger group of strict constructionists are now engaged in an almost mordantlyself-conscious effort to "revolutionize" the study of human behavior along aDarwinian straight and narrow under the name of "evolutionary psychology." He argues that the '"ultra-Darwinists" share a conviction that natural selectionregulates everything of any importance in evolution, and that adaptation emerges as auniversal result and ultimate test of selection's ubiquity." He basicallycontinues his argument in the June 26, 97 article by further arguing his belief that weevolved in more than just the process of natural selection.
I agree with most of Steven Jay Gould's position. The onlyfault that I can find is that he does know that there are those of us within evolutionarypsychology who agree with him, but we are not ready to throw out the baby with the bathwater by excluding all that has been written about evolutionary psychology. (I guesspart of that reason is that I, and others, have no real clout nor status in the movement-- yet). I understand and share his diverse view of evolution, and also share his fear ofthe conservatives within the movement. I strongly disagree with the argument of theselfish gene as the exclusive form of genetic transmission; that behavior is largelycontained within operating systems of our varied cultures and those that dominate thosecultures. I suppose, in some way, you could consider Evolution's Voyage and my ownposition as the liberal side of evolutionary psychology as opposed to the conservative,Darwinian fundamentalists.
The ability to find the precise locations of these algorithmic modulesor is stillyears away, but the general location of these areas has been culled from brain scans whichlocate neural activity, and from the study of behavioral dysfunctions resulting from braindamage or other malfunctions.
Knowing how these areas work in relation to the environment and the culture in which thehuman organism finds itself are the other areas of research in which evolutionarypsychology shows the greatest promise. These spheres of research aim at configuringbehavior models based on primate studies, hunter-gatherer research, and anthropologicalevidence into the best possible problem-solving probabilities of our ancestral behaviorpatterns. It is from these studies that evolutionary psychologists build behaviorprobabilities into our modern cultures and show us why we do the things we do -- based onbiology.
For me, the reason that evolutionary psychology is important is that, scientists andscholars alike are finally all collaborating together to form a consensus on how the humanbrain, and thus human emotions, have evolved. Once we know how such emotions as prejudice,hate, and anger evolved, we, as humans, can begin to change these negative behaviormechanisms. We do this by being self-aware of, then controlling, the emotions that flowfrom our brain. It is this self-awareness and self-control that makes us human. So youcreationists have nothing to fear from scientists who want to push humankind's creationtimeline back to include our primate cousins. We are separated from the animal within usby our higher consciousness. We have demonstrated that we control our emotions andthus change our external behavior patterns. But we all must acknowledge that we are stillattached by the flesh to our primal past.
From an evolutionary timeline, we don't have much time left before we begin to makedeliberate genetic mutations. There are three periods of evolution. The firstyou are familiar with: Natural Selection. Here, hereditary defects are weededout without human consciousness. The second is Deliberate Manipulation: theelimination of genetic defects through deliberate manipulation of the genes. Thethird: Volitional Evolution: The deliberate mutation of genetic structure throughGene Therapy. (God help us...please study the history of Eugenics)
Even though I have difficulty with some points ofCharles Darwin's theoryof natural selection, I have no doubt of the effect his theory has had on ourself-awareness. Darwin's theory of natural selection is monumental in the behavioraldirection of this planet's future. Like Galileo before him, Darwin and his evolutionarytheories have been, and are still, under attack by religious forces frightened by thethought of a world where their authority and their right to speak for God is diminished. Iunderstand the fear that fuels their passion: they may lose influence. In particular, thefear of the diminution of the family and the chaos ensuing if such theories are accepteddo not fall on dispassionate ears. But I also understand the importance of evolutionarypsychology and the discoveries that this new science is bringing to our world in trulylearning human behavior. Most human suffering, including the possibility of globalconflict, occurs because of our ignorance of how behavior mechanisms evolved. Thisrequires the acceptance of evolutionary theory. In 1609, when the church condemned Galileoto house arrest for life, the churchmen refused to look through Galileo's telescope andsee the logic of his arguments. The church insisted that the poor found comfort in theirGod and refuge from the misery that surrounded them by remaining ignorant. Ordinarypeople, of course, found out about Galileo's theories anyway. The truth can not besuppressed forever.
My fondest wish is that somehow I could convince our religious cousins thatscience is merely filling the exacting evolutionary need that God gave all of us -- theneed for convincing answers before we take our next step. The need for God endured afterGalileo's theory was brought out of the darkness of ignorance, and it will endure when thebattle over evolution vs. creationism is over. Families in all communities will stillrequire the comfort and wisdom of their religious leaders; the formation of morals andcultural behavior models will always be their provenance. It is time, however, to see theoverwhelming logic before them by accepting the evolutionary theory. I know that it willbe a new beginning, not an end, for religion. For me, this step is wanted, needed, andeagerly awaited for. And it is for this reason that I give praise to Darwin and make acall for religious support for the next battle: The battle against those who supporteugenics and genetic engineering in their attempt to "improve" the humanspecies. That is God's provenance.
A 4 page research paper that examines the life and work of Wilhelm Wundt. The history of psychology begins with this topic being studied as sub-topics under the fields of both philosophy and physiology (Oakley, 1995). It became a field in its own right primarily through the work of Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) who is frequently referred to as the "Father of Experimental Psychology" or simply as the "Founder of Modern Psychology." The writer briefly examines his life and accomplishments. Bibliography lists 3 sources.
Industrial/organizational psychology is a huge subfield that began in the late 1880s. This essay reports the evolution of the subfield, including some of the major theorists. It also discusses why I/O should be considered a science and the influence it has had with an example. Bibliography lists 4 sources.
In the field of evolutionary psychology, much is owed to the anthropologist John Toobyand the psychologist Leda Cosmides. It was their essay, "The PsychologicalFoundations of Culture" (, Barkow, J.H., Cosmides, L., andTooby, J. (Eds.) 1992, Oxford University Press, New York), that unified the science into aself-believing entity. Their argument that the principles of evolutionary theory werebeing ignored due to the major influence of the SSSM, (Standard Social Science Model) andshould be reexamined. This "standard" proposed that humans were born with ageneral-purpose brain lacking in innate, hard-wired instructions (nature), andrequired "filling" with instructions by those around it, (nurture). To Tooby andCosmides, this failure to view the science of biology in psychology was due primarily tohumankind's attempt to be kind and "politically correct" that influenced thesocial norms that moved society in the 60s and 70s. Their premise in the PsychologicalFoundation of Culture essay was to rewind the clock back to our primate origins and torenew our search for human behavior today equipped with the new knowledge frommultidisciplines, and, (Ibid., p. 3). It was from this premise thatgave rebirth to the "modular" brain theory and the basis of evolutionarypsychology. It is for this reason that I give praise to these two brave individuals whomust endure the slings and arrows of criticism of popular culture in order to defend theirbeliefs. I think that their vision of the future of evolutionary psychology givesdirection and purpose to the science and says it all:
I think that I may know the reason for Wilson's reluctance. Every scientist wants credit for his or her own theory formation or discovery, and thisesteemed scientist is no different. But one of the tests of a great scientist is thehumility in which he or she presents themselves to the world. So, as far as Iam concerned, Mr. Wilson, I praise you for your insight, wisdom, and courage. And, at least at this web site, you are the father of evolutionary psychology.
The American Psychological Foundation was founded in 1953. The association’s sole purpose is to provide funding and financial support for research projects that have the potential to “elevate the human condition and advance human potential both now and in generations to come.” The American Psychological Foundation provides grants to women beginning their career in psychology who are interested in advancing the same goals that the foundation espouses.
One such organization is the National Association of School Psychologists. This association was established in 1995 to aid minority graduate students in psychology who face financial barriers to continuing their education. Today they offer scholarships open to minority women graduate students pursuing a Specialist Degree or its equivalent in School Psychology.