So feedback is not strictly essentialfor learning; but it is widely and pervasively important and it may besensible to plan for it explicitly as an independent aim.
He demonstrated in thelate 1960s that feedback does NOT function as reinforcement (as was commonlybelieved then, and for some reason this myth still survives, even in sometextbooks); that instructional feedback should, in some cases, be delayedrather than immediate, and that response certitude plays an important rolein the effectiveness of some types of feedback.
be better at judging that the essay ispoor than at identifying why it is poor.A human teacher is often used to provide feedback of all types: indeed that isone of their chief functions.My intermediate category of information source, the "environment", is itselfvery diverse.
error messages and debugger displays in programmingenvironments, doppler readouts of how hard you hit a ball, etc.).The reason for distinguishing a human teacher from the otherwise heterogenouscategory of "environment" is simply because of the practical importance of thequestion of whether all feedback could be given by computers, dispensing withthe need for teachers to perform this function.
do quite a lot of the feedback process themselves, given thisinformation.The information supplied by feedback may come from various possiblesources.
If you throw darts at a board, you often have to walk forwardto see which side of a boundary wire the dart landed: so is that necessary andintrinsic feedback?
Explanation must normally comefrom the public level, behaviour must normally come from the private level; butprediction could come from either: from calculation or from observation of pastcases.The above applies most obviously to feedback on things like mathsexamples and computer programs, but it also applies to feedback on essays.
Someone onITForum said when there is a definite right procedure (which they alreadyknow).Not only can you then "get away" with giving only the lowest level offeedback, but it is usually best to do this because it prompts the learner tore-process the rules and use them correctly to generate both the right answerand its justification, as Geoff Isaacs reminds us (see below).
Again,this is nothing to do with necessity, nor is it to do with the source of theinformation (as we can now make machines give feedback at the level ofdescriptions).
Thus although she discusses it as an issue of the source of the information, itis actually an issue of the type of information.The above scheme based on types of information and sources of theinformation does not explicitly distinguish positive and negative feedback.
To make your feedback process effective and successful, it is advisable to prepare well before an appraisal process, as it helps to draft a constructive employee performance review.
Itis worth discussing positive feedback, which is important because a) oftenfeedback schemes neglect it b) it can be very important to learner morale(confidence, pleasure), which itself can be a powerful determinant of learningoutcomes.Mere positive reinforcement is not enough and not needed (neither sufficientnor necessary): success if there is a definite answer is enough.
For example, an instructor may choose to praise a student in front of a class or work group or may instead deliver that praise in a private conversation or as written feedback on the student's assignment.
In some cases, for example, you, the teacher, might want students to workout corrective action for themselves (no corrective feedback), or you mightwant them to try before you give corrective feedback if necessary (delayedcorrective feedback — the "when" issue).