Thomsen: "Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi was celebrating his thirty-fifth wedding anniversary on the Big Island of Hawaii in 1998. One afternoon, tired of the pool and the shallow water around the resort, he decided to swim out of the bay and into the ocean beyond. "The current took me, and with the big waves, pretty soon I was a half mile from the entrance to the bay," he recalls. "I got scared, because all there was were large, rough, black lava rocks on the shore. I swam to them, hoping to find a place to climb out, but the waves kept slamming me into the rocks. I was bloody all over. A couple of times I almost passed out." What happened next is subject to the variations of individual memory. Martin Seligman's memory is that he waded in to help rescue Csikszentmihalyi from the water. As Csikszentmihalyi remembers it, he was able to propel himself out of the sea despite "looking like raw hamburger." While he was staggering back to the resort on a small pathway, he recalls, a man approached him and offered to take him to the first aid station. "Halfway back he says to me, 'Aren't you Mike Csikszentmihalyi? I'm Marty Seligman.' We had met at a conference 20 years before." Whichever version is more accurate, what followed is clear: the two renowned psychologists spent the next couple of days in a nearly unbroken stream of conversation. Seligman was soon to begin his term as president of the American Psychological Association and was looking to leave a legacy. "I have recently decided we have devoted too much time to understanding the negative aspects of life," he confided. They talked about Csikszentmihalyi's work on flow—the psychology of optimal experience, the phenomenon that sometimes accompanies activities having the right balance of skill and challenge that people find completely engrossing. His study dovetailed nicely with Seligman's work on optimism and offered direction for research about human strengths, not merely focused on mental illness. Before they left the island, they had formed a partnership that would expand to include other likeminded professionals and bear fruit in a new direction for the discipline of psychology" (Thomsen, 2004, p. 14). "Seligman lauds Csikszentmihalyi as "the brains and historical anchor of the operation" in Positive Psychology, dubbing himself "the cheerleader."" (Thomsen, 2004, p. 15). [This is from the magazine of Claremont graduate University. Csikszentmihalyi is on faculty there. Marilyn Thomsen was the editor of the magazine when she wrote this article.]
Three approaches: During the early 1960s Hadley Cantril used his self anchoring scale extensively. He used an approach that "conceptualized well-being as a cognitive experience in which the individual compared his perception of his present situation to a situation which he aspired to, expected, or felt he deserved. The discrepancy between his perceived life and his aspired-to life is expressed in a measure of satisfaction-dissatisfaction, and greater satisfaction is taken as an indicator of a sense of well-being" (Campbell, 1976, p. 119). Campbell (1976) also notes there have been hundreds of studies looking at the cognitive measures of satisfaction with work and marriage.
The second approach or large-scale studies based upon affective aspects of experience, including Bradburn's affect balance scale. Bradburn looked at positive and negative episodes occurring in respondents' lives.
Third, there have been studies based upon psychiatric indices.
This essay will focus on the purpose of the advertisement for the company, the positive effects and negative effects of advertisement on consumer behavior.
Based on Fowles’ article, although advertising has some negative aspects, advertising influences people positively by fulfilling the needs to nurture, achieve, and for affiliation....
Different types of advertisement such as television, radio, magazine, newspaper, the internet, billboards and posters can influence consumer’s behavior positively or negatively as there are different arguments and opinions.
Wright, T. A., & Quick, J. C. (2009). The emerging positive agenda in organizations: Greater than a trickle, but not yet a deluge. , (2), 147–159. doi:10.1002/job.582. The evidence is clear regarding applied science's longstanding fascination with the negative aspects of organizational life. The purpose of this special issue of the is to tangibly demonstrate that the concept of a "positive psychology" is gaining importance in both psychology and organizational behavior. To that end, our lead article focuses on five topic areas. First, we provide a limited historical backdrop of positive organizational research. Second, we suggest the theoretical basis for why the current overwhelming emphasis on the negative. Next, we introduce the seven peer refereed articles contained in this special issue which, when considered together, highlight the varied application and potentially widespread benefits of studying the positive in organizational research. Fourth, incorporating the "point/counterpoint" JOB framework, we offer two varying, but insightful, perspectives on positive organizational research by Luthans and Avolio and Hackman. Finally, the article concludes with a discussion of how emerging research on the positive can be used to help build a stronger science of organizational behavior.
Simonton, D. K., & Baumeister, R. F. (2005). Positive psychology at the summit [Special issue]. , (2), 99–102. doi:10.1037/1089–2618.104.22.168. Psychology has traditionally placed more emphasis on the negative than positive aspects of human behavior. The positive psychology movement, since its beginnings in 1999, has made major advances toward correcting this imbalance. Research inspired by the movement now spans an impressive range of topics, including many that are absolutely essential to a comprehensive psychological understanding of human nature. The present special issue provides a sampling of some of the best work in the area. All but the first and last articles come from presentations at the Second International Positive Psychology Summit, held in 2003 in Washington, DC. This sample can be supplemented by the chapters that have appeared in several recent anthologies of contemporary research.
"It is time to correct the imbalance between considering only negative behavior of individuals and institutions and consider the human potential needed for well–being, satisfaction, and meaningful aspects of work and life. The most basic assumption of positive psychology is that human goodness and excellence are as authentic and common as are disease, disorder, and distress" (Hoy & Tarter, 2011, p. 428).
"In sum, from a definitional standpoint, positive psychology is a positive science that conducts basic research with an eye to improving human life and functioning; its practitioners try to at least take an appreciative view of the positive aspects of human nature, even if they do not go so far as to assume that human nature is 'basically good'; they tend to study topics that are framed in positive terms rather than in polar negative terms; and they try to recognize and correct (when necessary) the negative biases regarding human nature that used to permeate the field, even as they try to remain realistic, so as not to fall prey to wishful thinking and overly rosy visions and so as not to ignore important 'negative' aspects of human nature that impact upon their topics" (Sheldon, 2011, p. 422).
People have been debating the positive and negative aspects of advertising for a while. Some people believe that advertisements must be banned because they have negative impacts on our lives. Others including I disagree with them. My actual observation of life has convinced me of the positive aspects of advertising. In this essay, I shall explain my point of view by analyzing both sides of the argument.
Woolfolk, R. L. (2002). The power of negative thinking: Truth, melancholia, and the tragic sense of life. , (1), 19–27. doi:10.1037/h0091192. In this brief essay I argue that the contemporary "positive psychology" movement fails to emphasize important aspects of human existence that are essential to human excellence. Through an explication of some historical, cross–cultural, and literary examples, I argue for the importance of a kind of "negative psychology" that is fundamental to an adequate comprehension of the human situation.