BUPL (Børne- og Ungdomspædagogernes Landsforbund) – The Danish National Federation of Early Childhood Teachers and Youth Educators (undated). The work of the pedagogue: roles and tasks. Copenhagen: BUPL. [. Retrieved: October 16, 2012].
Board of Education (1944). Teachers and Youth Leaders. Report of the Committee appointed by the President of the Board of Education to consider the supply, recruitment and training of teachers and youth leaders, London: HMSO. [Part 2 is reproduced in the informal education archives, . Retrieved October 23, 2012].
While we can welcome the warnings against viewing teaching as an instrumental activity – whether it is satisfactory to describe it as pedagogy is a matter for some debate. Indeed Hamilton (1999) has argued that much of what passes for pedagogy in UK education debates is better understood as didactics. We can see this quickly when looking at the following description of didactics from Künzli (1994 quoted in Gundem 2000: 236).
LIBERTARIAN, OR CO-INTENTIONAL EDUCATION. Teachers and studentsare simultaneously both teachers and learners. They learn from eachother and help each other learn. (59) "Teachers and students(leadership and people). . . are both subjects. . . in the task ofunveiling that reality,. . . but in the task of recreating thatknowledge. . . through common reflection and action." They become itspermanent re-creators. This is committed involvement, notpseudo-participation. Students discover that reality is a that undergoes constant transformation. (56) Thisrequires abandoning the deposit-making model and replacing it withposing the problems of human beings in their relations with theworld.(66)
Of course, schools, and banking education with its system of exams and certificates individualises. It also works very well to promote the myth that this is a classless society – by mixing all the classes in the same system and individualizing them all. Though the middle-classes always win at this game. It is interesting how willing the middle-classes are to put their own children through what is essentially a demeaning process, which treats them as objects, with a view to perpetuating their class.
Pedagogy is the stuff of teachers’ daily lives. Put simply it’s about teaching. But we take a broad view of teaching as a complex activity, which encompasses more than just ‘delivering’ education. Another way to explain it is by referring to:
In one of our culture circles in Chile, the group was discussing (based on a codification) the anthropological concept of culture. In the midst of the discussion, a peasant who by banking standards was completely ignorant said: "Now I see that without man there is no world." When the educator responded: "Let's say, for the sake of argument, that all the men on earth were to die, but that the earth remained, together with trees, birds, animals, rivers, seas, the stars. . . wouldn't all this be a world?" "Oh no," the peasant replied . "There would be no one to say: 'This is a world'."
We are more alienated than the more primitive systems of exploitation that Freire was confronting. In our situation alienation is a requirement for all participants. Education is the primary means of achieving this.
THE BANKING MODEL OF EDUCATION turns students into "receptacles"to be "filled" by the teachers, like making deposits at a bank. Theteacher deposits and students are the depositories. Students receive,memorize, and repeat. (58) Since we "receive" the world as passiveentities, education should make us more passive still, and adjust usto our world so that we do not question it. The banking model triesto control thinking and action and inhibits our creative powers. Ittries to maintain the submersion of consciousness. In it we aremerely spectators, not re-creators. (62)
STUDENTS AND TEACHERS. Through dialogue a new termsemerges--teacher student with students-teachers. The students, whilebeing taught, also teach. "They become jointly responsible for aprocess in which all grow." Here "arguments based on "authority" areno longer valid [and] authority must be on the side of freedom, noagainst it.. . . No one teachers another, nor is anyone self taught."We teach each other, mediated by the world. (67)
ONE-SIDED NARRATIVES. In traditional education, there is anarrator (the teacher) and a listening object (the students.)"Education is suffering from narration sickness." (57) This minimizesstudents' creative power, and "serves the interests of theoppressors, who care neither to have the world revealed nor to see ittransformed." They "react almost instinctively against any experimentin education which stimulates the critical faculties and is notcontent with a partial view of reality. (60)
The most striking aspect of current thinking and discussion about education is its eclectic character, reflecting deep confusion of thought, and of aims and purposes, relating to learning and teaching – to pedagogy.
PROBLEM-POSING EDUCATION. "The educator constantly re-forms hisreflections in the reflections of the students [who] are now criticalco-investigators in dialogue with the teacher. . . . Problem-posingeducation involves a constant unveiling of reality, the emergence ofconsciousness, and critical intervention in reality." (68) This iseducation as the practice of freedom rather than the practice ofdomination. It de-mythologizes and takes character of our presenthistorical society and culture as a starting point. (69)