Hellman's proposal offers a principled way of resolving disputedboundary lines between acceptable and unacceptable discrimination,which set the standard of formal equality of opportunity. In thistangled area of thought, the success of the proposal is hard tojudge. One worry is that even if the proposal gives a sufficientcondition for wrongful discrimination, the proposal may fail as anecessary condition. Suppose a society's employment practices are setby a religion that reveres women but dictates that their proper roleis that of traditional homemaker, and that the only public sphereemployment suitable for women is temple prostitute (a highly regarded,indeed sacred calling). These practices of discrimination do notdemean women, but their this-worldly consequences are seriouslyharmful to women and arguably, in virtue of this fact, wronglydiscriminatory. Another concern is that the proposal may fail as asufficient condition as well. Suppose a society countenances givinglesser weight, in public and private decision making, to the interestsof severely cognitively disabled individuals than to the nondisabled,on the ground that these human individuals fail to have the rationalagency capacities that qualify sentient beings as full persons. Thepractices of the society may demean the severely cognitively disabledwithout being wrongfully discriminatory. (On Hellman, and on wrongfuldiscrimination generally, see Lippert-Rasmussen 2014, and ondiscrimination against the severely cognitively impaired, see McMahan1996).
The act also established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission where anyone with a discrimination complaint can go to the commissioner and the EEOC will take the issue to court....
The three essays which are explained in this essay are, "Mother Tongue," by Amy Tan; "The Ethics of Requiring Students to Write About their Personal Lives," by Susan Swartzlander, Diana Pace, and Virginia Lee Stamler; and "A Note from the Future," by Kathy Camper.
This is known as the “law of increasing opportunity costs.” The economic rational for the law of increasing opportunity costs is that economic resources are not completely adaptable to alternative uses....
Equal Employment Opportunity in the Working Environment Equal employment opportunity involves both workplace nondiscrimination and affirmative action....
Perhaps the most important application of opportunity cost is the decision to do things for yourself vs. hiring someone. Doing it yourself is often cheaper and can be fun. But the cost of doing it yourself is the value of the other things you could have done with your time. Those other things might include working a part-time job or doing consulting, which means you forego money. So doing it yourself can be costly in the monetary sense. But the non-monetary costs can dwarf the monetary costs. Time spent painting your house yourself is time you can't spend reading to your children or being with your spouse or volunteering at the local soup kitchen.
Of all the constraints we face, the constraint of 24 hours in a day and a finite lifetime are ones we cannot escape. Getting the most out of life means using that precious time wisely. Using that time wisely means using and understanding opportunity cost.
Opportunity cost is a forward-looking concept. If my car breaks down and I fix it, and it breaks down again, the decision to fix it a second time is independent of the first repairs costs. It is irrational to think that I have to fix it because I've put so much money into the car already—if I don't fix it, I'll lose all the money I've already invested. I've already lost the money on the first repair. Now I should only ask whether the second set of repairs are worth it.
Notice that selection among applicants for a job by a randomprocedure that gives all applicants an identical chance of getting thejob actually violates formal equality of opportunity as hereinterpreted (on equal opportunity as a lottery procedure, see Rae etal. 1981). At least, if there are relevant standards of merit thatcould be applied to the applicants and that would predict successfuljob performance, a lottery to select who gets the job would notqualify as selection according to merit. Only if all applicants areequally qualified or there is no feasible and cost-effective way todistinguish among the applicants according to their merit would alottery satisfy the ideal of equality of opportunity.
Provide your own definition of “opportunity cost”. Discuss what the opportunity cost of attending college is for you, noting that
the concepts of opportunity costs and explicit monetary costs are not the same.
The United States has developed The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, also known as the EEOC, to enforce laws that help prevent everyone from being treated unfairly when it comes to employment options.
One aspect of home ownership and opportunity cost is particularly tricky. Suppose your house appreciates. You could sell it and move to a smaller house or a house in a different neighborhood. But you decide to stay. The appreciation of your house means it has gotten more costly to live in it. But that increase in cost, being an opportunity cost rather than an out-of-pocket cost does not mean you are worse off. In fact, it is a sign that you are better off—an asset you own has appreciated and your wealth is higher at least as long as the appreciation stays in place. Opportunity cost is different from what we think of colloquially as cost, which usually means a monetary payment. Opportunity cost guides rational decision-making. But an increase in costs doesn't necessarily mean that you are worse off than you were before.
The EEOC has established stipulations and overlooks all of the federal equal employment opportunity regulations, practices and policies (“Federal Laws Prohibiting Job Discrimination Questions and Answers”)....