Christ overthrew many centuries of Jewish law and custom. He consistently treated womenand men as equals. He violated numerous Old Testament regulations, which specified genderinequality. He refused to follow the behavioral rules established by the three main Jewishreligious groups of the day: the Essenes, Pharisees and Sadducees. 1 Some examplesare:
From the beginning, men have been trained and conditioned to be the dominant hunters in society, where as women were generally the less aggressive individuals in any given population.
Joseph Fielding Smith, tenth president of the church (1970-1972) married Louise E. Shurtleff in 1898. She died in 1908. In 1908 he married Ethel G. Reynolds, who died in 1937. In 1938 he married Jessie Evans, who died in 1971. He was sealed "for eternity" to each of those women. Now, paraphrasing what the Pharisees asked Jesus: Which woman will be Smith's wife in the celestial kingdom? According to Mormon doctrine, ALL THREE will be his wives. Smith confirmed "…my wives will be mine in eternity." (Doctrines of Salvation, vol 2, pg 67.)
Harold B. Lee, the 11th president of the church, also remarried after his wife's death and anticipated his reunion with both women in poetry:
"My lovely Joan was sent to me:
So Joan joins Fern
That three might be, more fitted for eternity.
'O Heavenly Father, my thanks to thee' "
(Deseret News 1974 Church Almanac, page 17)
Additional examples include Howard W. Hunter, the 14th church president, who married Clara May Jeffs in 1931. She died in 1983. He then married Inis Bernice Egan in 1990. Both were sealed to him for time and eternity. Hunter died in 1995, having stated that he was looking forward to being reunited with his two wives in heaven.
As for polyandry, the question has come up in doing proxy sealings for the dead, where a woman was married more than once. Church policy is to seal the woman to both men, with the understanding that she will have to choose in the CK which sealing (only one) she accepts. So, no polyandry.
Church doctrines and teachings have changed greatly over the years. As Mormon youth in Seminary and Sunday School, we were taught the 'eternal' doctrine of polygamy which remains a part of LDS theology, as per D&C 132. We were told that the Lord no longer required church members to practice polygamy because of the 'wickedness of men', but during the Millennium, 'the principle of plural wives' would be restored, even as God had 'restored' it through Joseph Smith. Members were also taught that 'worthy' priesthood holders would become Gods after death, with each resurrected man creating countless planets in his own universe. LDS women and teenage girls were taught that they would become the polygamous wives of a Mormon priesthood holder-God, and spend eternity bearing 'spirit children', who would incarnate on planets created by their omnipotent husband. It's our understanding that the LDS church no longer teaches this 'true' doctrine.
Just ask yourselves, historians, when was monogamy introduced on to the face of the earth? When those buccaneers, who settled on the peninsula where Rome now stands, could not steal women enough to have two or three apiece, they passed a law that a man should have but one woman. And this started monogamy and the downfall of the plurality system. In the days of Jesus, Rome, having dominion over Jerusalem, they carried out the doctrine more or less. This was the rise, start and foundation of the doctrine of monogamy; and never till then was there a law passed, that we have any knowledge of, that a man should have but one wife.
Slightly modified for online navigation, the essays complement the division-by-division collection descriptions that constitute the bulk of the research guide. They permit discussions of topics only briefly mentioned in the broader divisional overviews, and they illustrate how different aspects of American women's history may be investigated by focusing on:
Abstract: Ware, a noted expert on twentieth-century American women and a former professor of history at New York University, chaired the academic advisory board for the book American Women. She is currently editing the fifth volume of Notable American Women and is nearing completion on a biography of radio talk show pioneer Mary Margaret McBride, whose personal papers, radio broadcasts, and other materials are held by the Library of Congress. In this introductory essay, Ware traces the evolution and current status of the field of women's history, highlights major research themes and scholarly concepts, and describes her own research experiences identifying and utilizing women's history materials in the various divisions of the Library of Congress.
"." Rosemary Fry Plakas, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress. December 2001.
Abstract: Plakas describes an early episode of American women's collective patriotism by focusing on a 1780 broadside,"The Sentiments of an American Woman," believed to have been written by Esther De Berdt Reed, first lady of Pennsylvania, to inspire women throughout the colonies to raise funds for General George Washington's poorly provisioned troops.
"." Sara Day, Publishing Office, Library of Congress. December 2001.
Abstract: Day, one the editors of American Women, searched the Library's pictorial and textual collections for images of women in pre-1800 America, analyzed the content of these pictorial depictions, and concluded that stereotypical and allegorical representations of women belied the reality of most women's lives and helped to limit women's roles in early America.
"." Sheridan Harvey, Humanities and Social Sciences Division, Library of Congress. December 2001.
Abstract: When Alice Paul and Lucy Burns returned to the United States after working with the radical wing of the British suffrage movement, they sought to infuse the lethargic American campaign with techniques and strategies that had proven successful across the ocean. Their first activity was mobilizing five thousand women for a massive suffrage parade on the eve of President-elect Woodrow Wilson's inauguration. Harvey identifies sources throughout the Library that can be pieced together to tell the story of the parade, including the mistreatment of marchers by rowdy crowds and inept police, the contested participation of African American women, and the parade's impact on the larger suffrage movement.
"." Leslie W. Gladstone, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. December 2001.
Abstract: Only fifty-one words in length, the proposed Equal Rights Amendment drafted by National Woman's Party president Alice Paul in 1923 became one of the most contested pieces of legislation in the twenthieth century. Through a variety of Library sources, Gladstone reconstructs the arguments for and against its ratification and summarizes the impact of the struggle on women's legal status in the last two decades of the century.
"." Patricia Molen van Ee, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress. December 2001.
Abstract: Van Ee contrasts the experiences of various women who left their homes to put down roots in California during the last quarter of the eighteenth century to the mid-nineteenth century. She discusses women who were part of Juan Bautista de Anza's overland expeditions in 1774-75 from the Spanish provinces of Sinaloa and Sonora in what is now Mexico to the San Francisco Bay area; women who lived in California when it was under Spanish (1769-1821) and Mexican (1822-46) control; and women who were drawn to the area following the discovery of gold in 1848.