When writing research papers, you will also be evaluating sources as you search for information. You will need to make decisions about what to search for, where to look, and once you've found material on your topic, if it is a valid or useful source for your writing.
Primary research occurs when you yourself make some observations on an experiment, survey or study, as is expected in science lab courses as well as in some social science and humanities research courses. But even those papers produced from primary research will usually involve the use of some kind of secondary research to discuss how your results compare to those of experts in the field.
Some sources such as journal or newspaper articles can be found in both print and digital format. However, much of what is found on the Internet does not have a print equivalent, and hence, has low or no quality standards for publication. Understanding the difference between the types of resources available will help you evaluate what you find.
Overall, the message here is not to worry about what the assignment is called, but instead to concentrate your efforts on reading and understanding every detail of what is asked of you in the assignment description. Some professors may include details about not only the length and due date, but also the number and kind of research sources to use, the kind of information to include, and even the method of organization to follow. Pay close attention to those instructions, because they are the professor's guidelines to you about what he/she will be looking for in evaluating the paper. Therefore, when you receive an assignment, the first and most useful thing you can do is to read the assignment instructions carefully and make sure you understand what is required before proceeding. Check with the professor if you are uncertain about any of the requirements.
A book report or book review is usually a summary of your critical opinion of one or more books, possibly supported by research into what other critics have said.
The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the personnel evaluation systems for three state agencies, describe four challenges public managers face in the implementation of personnel evaluation systems, analyze, and summarize four factors for executing public personnel evaluation systems....
Introduction Self-injury is a term which describes a variety of behaviours in which there are two critical elements: the damage is acute and the damage is intentional....
This evaluation benefits the Principal by: • Interpreting job duties into specific goals and strategies • Relating how the employee’s job responsibilities contributes to the overall effectiveness of the school and its mission statement.
However, if we are then asked to evaluate the beauty (or lack thereof) of a painting - meaning, explain and give reasons - well, its a different story.
The conclusion, unlike the introduction, moves from specific to general. It often begins with a restatement of the focal statement, summarizes the main points of the supporting paragraphs, and ends with a broader conclusion about how the topic relates to the general issue described in the introduction. The general rule is that no new information should be brought into the conclusion: everything in the conclusion should logically follow from the information provided to the reader in the paper. Just as in a detective story you don't want to find out in the last scene that the crime was committed by a character you hadn't met, in an essay a reader doesn't want to be introduced in the conclusion to a major piece of information or evidence which wasn't discussed in the body of the paper.
In the body, you are providing information and arguments that should follow logically from the point expressed in your focal statement and should support it consistently throughout the paper. The body is made up of a series of paragraphs: packages of information, each beginning with a topic sentence that identifies the topic of the paragraph in the same way that the focal statement for the essay defines the specific topic of the essay. This topic sentence also provides a link not only to the previous paragraph but also to the focal statement of the essay, identifying how this information contributes to the stand you've taken. The topic of the paragraph is then developed with sentences which may provide examples, details, evidence or analogies. A broader concluding sentence for the paragraph may also be provided to tie the information together and remind the reader of how it relates to the focus of the essay.
In the introduction, you should begin with the general issue and narrow down to the specifics of the problem you are discussing in your paper. Think of it as an inverted triangle. You should use the introduction to provide background information about the broad subject, identify the relevant problem or issue, and take the reader step by step to an understanding of why the specific focus of this paper is relevant to that subject. An introduction usually ends with some sort of statement of your focus (e.g., a focal statement, thesis statement, purpose statement, or hypothesis). This statement tells the reader specifically what point you are going to make or prove in your essay, and, if possible, how you are going to go about doing that. You might therefore suggest the method of organization you will be using in your paper, but not actually provide the information about the points.
An assignment requiring a literature review or research review may be asking you to choose a specific topic and then to read journal articles written by experts about their own research. In this kind of paper you will be summarizing and comparing the results of research conducted on that topic. In some advanced courses you may also be required to do some critical evaluation of the kind and quality of research being done. The term 'literature,' as it is used in this assignment, refers to published research material rather than English literature or fiction. (See information on .)