How society views and reacts to corruption plays a major role in determining whether it is stopped or encouragedSome societal practices can glorify and fuel corruption, while others discourage the vice (Hanson, 2009). This study therefore intends to delve into the perceptions of corruption in West Africa’s political and economic developments and the implications for Ghana, Ivory Coast and Nigeria.
Corruption has driven the poverty levels to unprecedented heights, with African countries failing to feed and provide basic amenities for their population, thus resorting to civil strife. Nigeria has large oil and gas deposits, but its growth rates and GDP are lower than its counterparts on less endowed continents (Caselli, 2006). Similar developmental challenges can be observed in other West African nations such as Ghana and Ivory Coast (Caselli, 2006).
The study will be significant as it will help bring to light the way people in Nigeria, Ghana and Ivory Coast perceive corruption and how such perceptions affect the economic and political development of the countries involved. Leaders in these nations take advantage of their leadership positions and use the opportunity as a means to amass wealth. Moreover, in order to consolidate the money they loot from the public coffers they refuse to relinquish power through the manipulations of constitutional provisions. According to Ayittey (2002), African leaders such as General Sani Abacha of Nigeria, President Houphey Boigny (Ivory Coast), General Ibrahim Babangida (Nigeria) were worth $20 billion, $6 billion and $5 billion respectively. Understanding the way the citizenry perceive the acquisition of unscrupulous wealth by the political elite will be necessary if Ghana, Ivory Coast and Nigeria are to adopt policies and enact legislations in the fight against corruption. A report on corruption published in August 2009 by Transparency International, listed Nigeria as one of the most corrupt nations in the world. With reference to the then military coup which occurred in November 1993, following the annulment of presidential elections in June that year, General Sani Abacha, the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces, took power and annulled the organs of state, banned political parties and dismantled all democratic structures (BBC , April 25, 1998).
The role of corruption in conflicts, especially in oil rich areas cannot be overemphasized. Internal conflicts in West Africa and the rise of terrorist groups such as Boko Haram and Al-Shabab are funded by the illegal sale of arms, or unlawful extraction of high-value resources such gold, diamonds and timber. Weapons are trafficked across borders into less stable nations which instigate civil wars, thereby destabilizing the region. Hence, corruption poses a threat to post-conflict countries like Ivory Coast engaging in peace building. Various theories have been used in an attempt to explain corruption. The psychoanalytic approach is derived from Freud Sigmund’s components of personality. The three elements of a person’s character are the ego, super ego, and id, which is a Latin abbreviation used by Freud to refer to innate and subconscious character traits of a person. A corrupt person is a result of lack of balance between the three. This person may have a resilient but a very feeble super ego (Freud & Freud, 2001). This combined with a fairly regular ego leads to corrupt tendencies. This theory is used to examine the validity of the perception that corruption can be innate and some people are more inclined towards being corrupt than others.
Since its establishment in 2002, the AU-PSC has done a remarkable job supervising the peace arrangement in the Sudan, ending of one of the longest civil wars in Africa (KhartoumâSPLA/M war), the creation of government in Somalia in 2012, initiatives in the Madagascan crisis, elementary advancement by the International Conference for the Great Lakes Region (ICGLR) to contain the M23 rebel group in DRC, the ongoing Malian crisis, as well as containing the Ivory Coast case. Its devolved approach to work through the sub-regional economic communities such as the ECOWAS, SADC, IGAD and the ICGLR allows it to respond quickly and effectively to conflict while maintaining regional sensitivity.
2011 conflict in ivory coast
The paper is about the 2011 conflict in Ivory Coast following the presidential election and resulting in the military intervention of the UN blue helmet and the French army. I need to know the roots of the conflict, which started back in the 80s with the principle of “ivoirité”, the different parties involved, the successive effort of the international community to resolve the conflict through negotiation and treaties. I am also interested in the discourse used by the international community and the french army to justify the use of force against one of the party (the killing of civilians and the PR2 principle).