Menelik personally dealt with a few dissidents that could injure the campaign at hand. One of these, Dejazmach Guangul made his submission, asked pardon and sought permission to participate in ‘the defence of his country and master’. Menelik deployed him to operate under Ras Mengesha. Other shifta submitted in Bagemder, and sending Bejirond Balcha Menelik punished a village that was harbouring others in a hideout at an amba called Arara. Another dissident, the ruler of Adal, whose predecessors had been known for their loyalty to Ethiopia, was rumoured to have been liaising with the Italians probably since 1888. The Italians had been bribing him promising him sovereignty. To neutralize dissent on that front, Menelik deployed troops that had arrived late having been delayed by the heavy rains. These easily took Awesa, the town that the sultan deserted on receiving news of the defeat of his men. On 15 December, Menelik reviewed his troops at Wefla, near Ashangie. He displayed forty two cannons that he was to deploy later in the battle of Adewa. Negus Tekle Haymanot of Gojam, the last to report, arrived at Ashangie and joined Menelik on 23 December.
The Ethiopian advance force reached the Italian camp at Amba Alagi, Tigray, in early December. It was commanded by Ras Makonen from Harar, and constituted of Ras Mikael heading the cavalry from Wello, Dejach Wele Betul from Yeju and nearby Bagemder and Ras Mengasha Yohannes of Tigray. An unexpected attack mounted by Fitawrari Gebeyehu on December 7 1895 forced a fight and the enemy withdrew, leaving the Ethiopian a more defensible position in a matter of a few hours. The rases disciplined Fitawrari Gebeyehu later for attacking without being ordered to do so, and reported their victory to Menelik.
Competition to control the Red Sea and the Blue Nile brought European colonialists along the Ethiopian borderlands in the second half of the nineteenth century. With superior technology and determination to acquire political, economic and geographical control so as to plant colonies (i.e. bring their own natives to possess new territories and export raw materials), Europeans were not satisfied with exercising control through surrogate rulers. Opening and controlling the Suez Canal, in particular, brought the British into Egypt (1882), a part of Somaliland and later the new country they called the Sudan. The opening of the Suez Canal also brought their rivals, the French, to establish colonies along the Red Sea. Britain and France had been establishing colonies around the world since the sixteenth century. Italy on the other hand had come into existence only in 1861, taking the date they proclaimed Victor Emmanuel as the first king of the newly formed state. It acquired the port of Assab after its treacherous local ruler had sold it to an Italian company. The French and the British urged and helped Italy to expand from Assab into the highlands of Hamasen in Ethiopia. The Italian leaders also learnt from the British different ways and means of taking and keeping territories in Africa, especially using local differences and exploiting points of competition for power. They relied on technologically advanced weapons too, of course. Determined to take on Ethiopia since the 1880s, they were encouraging their agents to work on lulling the Ethiopians into accepting Italian colonial ambitions.
What can be achieved by an Africa United was demonstrated by the Battle of Adwa. Ethiopia as a country was divided, as many ethnic groupings swore allegiance to their own chiefs (or Ras). When things came to a head, Emperor Menelik was able to convince all of them to put aside their differences and contribute 100,000 troops to face down the invaders. Prominent amongst them was Ras Mikael of Wollo, Ras Sibhat of Tigray, Ras Wale of Yejju Oromo, and Ras Gebeyehu, who died fighting at Adwa. Empress Betul was the commander of a cavalry.
give thanks for bringing Ethiopian history to the forefront, as we wish for all to see the t.r.u.t.h (the real untold testimony of haile – eliah) in Ethiopian Christianity, so that by the voice of the people in collective security (all for one Kristos and one Kristos for all),we diplomatically raise up a Defender (human rights ambassador) to MEDITATE the Emperor’s sacred covenant (UN charter) of fundamental equality for all, an destroy the global jesuit supremacy wall (imf discrimination & commercial oppression), which is based off international fraud
While discussions about Africa’s great agriculture potential have been going on since the time of independence, with little actual progress towards a Green Revolution, it now …
Reshuffling faces without changing our mindset and attitude will not change anything. Has the Ethiopian left learned anything? I doubt it. Fanaticism of the left as well as fanaticism of the right including religious extremism is dangerous. However, it is not an exaggeration to claim that Ethiopia has been infected with left wing fanaticism for over forty years. Ethiopia’s left are not social democrats, or liberals we see in the west. The left in Ethiopia defines democracy within the context of Marxism. What is democratic centralism if not a Leninist principle? In Ethiopia, the government owns every piece of land. Why are people not allowed to own and cultivate their land? Why are people not allowed to sell, exchange and transfer land? In the past the demand of the Marxist left in Ethiopia was land to the tiller? Whatever happened to that aspiration? What is sacrosanct about land ownership? The government is the largest landowner in the country. In Ethiopia, the national government controls the purse strings tightly. How money is spent, how resources are allocated are determined by the government. It can lease land and break the lease if it desires, the government builds homes and condominiums to groups it favors and signals to others if you behave you will get a token appreciation. The government shows generosity to one group over another based on ethnic grounds, government contracts and largesse are allocated to cronies and associates. The relationship of the Ethiopian people and the government is one of subservient subject and the government as a provider.
In the grudge filled Ethiopian politics everything has been distorted. One cannot tell what is true and what is fiction. Some who oppose the current government have the same political prognosis and opinion as the government in power, they parrot the same language and espouse the same ideology. Like in the past they feel they can do a better job because the wrong people are in power. No, the wrong idea is the problem. Marxism/Leninism under the guise of revolutionary democracy is the problem. Socialism is a defeated system, no matter what you do to make it look good, it is still a failure. Ethnic federalism is a disaster; it is a fraud! Creating ethnic homeland is deceitful. The proliferation of ethnic political parties are deceptions. Does anyone honestly believe that breaking Ethiopia apart and creating mini segregated countries will bring peace and prosperity in the territories? Does anyone believe that independent Tigray, or independent Amhara or Independent Oromia has any chance of succeeding as a country? Those who are advancing such theory are delusional and are doing a great deal of disservice to the people. State capitalism is unfair and unjust. The selected few, the connected and the cronies of the present government are getting prosperous while the great majority are languishing at the bottom. The mighty dollar has become king, everyone is out for himself, damned Ethiopia is the prevailing attitude!
Although the United States had its own gloomy history starting with the treatment of indigenous people, slavery, legal segregation and discrimination, the internment of Japanese Americans into labor camps, most Americans have respect for their country. Yet in Ethiopia thanks to generation of leftist leaders, Ethiopia and Ethiopiawinet is despised. Our common history is maligned. Who can forget when Meles Zenawi proclaimed Ethiopia’s history is just a mere one hundred years, who can forget when this man said Ethiopia’s flag is a piece of rug, who can forget when Meles declared Axum, Lalibala, Gondar, harar iconic historical heritages of Ethiopia are not important in values to all Ethiopians. The left has been spewing poison and division for over forty years. Is there any wonder why Ethiopians cannot get along with each other or trust each other? Is there any wonder why there is not one single strong national party that represents all Ethiopians regardless of ethnicity or class? How can there be unity when cooperation is despised, how can unity work when one ethnic group is pitted against another? How can there be an agreement on anything when people are told to hate their country. Our forefathers left us one country, we are desperately trying to smash the country into pieces and in the process, create poverty and destitution for everyone. The left and the present government has deliberately divided the Ethiopian people to further their agenda. The Ethiopian peasantry and the Ethiopian masses are used and manipulated at their whim. Forty years after the end of the monarchy, we Ethiopians are more divided, distrustful, confused, frustrated and are worse in many ways than we were forty years ago, when is enough, enough? Flashy buildings in Addis Ababa and the expansion of road networks in the country are not the only means of measuring growth and development in the country. Shiny buildings don’t mean anything if there is moral decay and ethnic division in the country.
Despite the constant complaint we hear from some groups, Ethiopia in a lot of ways is no different than most countries in the world. Many countries embrace diverse population within their borders. Countries don’t take controversial step of dividing people along ethnic lines. If each ethnic group identified itself as a nation, the idea of statehood, nation-state becomes confusing and complicated. For the left, mistreated and neglected minorities and groups are referred as nation. In the United States and Canada native Indians have embraced the term nation to emphasize their identity. Some in the left suggest that African Americans and the people of Quebec in Canada are nations. On the other extreme, white nationalist’s neo-Nazi groups advocate white nationalism, white supremacy, and white nation. The dictionary definition of nation is an ethnic community bound by common language, culture, and ancestry. However, the definition of nation within the context of an ethnic community tied together by common language, culture ancestry does not mean statehood. Nation does not mean political sovereignty or independence. In spite of how some within the Ethiopian community act as if they are separate and apart from Ethiopia, at least to this date, there is no independent country called Oromia, Tigray, Amhara, Harari, Somali, Afar, Benishangual, Gambela or Southern nations. The assumption that the term nation implies sovereignty or national independence or statehood is an illusion. The culture, language and music of all ethnic groups must be respected in Ethiopia, but the claim that each group must preserve its culture by artificially dividing people and creating sham borders is very destructive and toxic. Imagine in the United States if the current states were dissolved and in their place a homeland for the Irish, Germans, Jews, African Americans, Poles, Italians, Japanese, Mexicans etc. were established and balkanization became the norm, the idea of statehood and one country would become meaningless and irrelevant.
What is the role of government? Why does government control every aspect of our life? When will dependency on government end? Why is the media run by the government? What is the purpose of having the ministry of communication? Should not the media be independent? Is it not the role of the media to be a watch dog against government abuse and overreach? How can the media report facts accurately if the government controls it? Does having fifty or sixty mini political parties in Ethiopia accomplish anything? Where are the strong principled national political parties that stand for ideas, a party that is inclusive, a party based not on ethnicity, but focused on fundamental democratic principles? Has Ethiopia produced one or two strong national political parties in the last forty years the likes of ANC or the Congress party of India? The Indian National Congress Party led by Mahatma Gandhi liberated India from British colonial domination. The African National congress played a major role in defeating the apartheid system in South Africa. The ANC produced a powerful leader as Nelson Mandela. Why are Ethiopia’s opposition parties divided and splintered? The competition among the opposition has always been I am a better leftist than the other and if imitation is the sincerest way of flattery, EPRDF should be flattered. Ethiopia is full of parties organized by ethnicity. Now that all are organized by ethnicity, what then? If the idea of some in the opposition is to imitate TPLF, where is the change?