JC: The module will explore a selection of Hippocratic texts, such as On the Sacred Disease, a theoretical work about the causes of epilepsy and On Airs, Waters, Places, an essay about the relationship between health and environment. Students will be encouraged to consider how far examples of early Greek natural philosophy – bold, imaginative and innovative attempts to explain the nature of the universe, such as Democritus’ theory that the universe is composed entirely of atoms – served as catalysts for the development of new medical ideas in fifth century BC Greece. Students will also be encouraged to identify ways in which Hippocratic medical ideas draws upon depictions of the body and disease in archaic Greek poetry (Homeric epic) and ancient Greek tragic drama. All ancient Greek texts used on the module will be studied in English translation.
In particularly grand and conservative establishments in France before the Revolution, the head cook might be called ecuyer de cuisine, supported by ranks of specialists such as rotisseurs, patissiers, and so forth, as well as a body of cuisiniers...The adoption of a new professional description must surely reflect a change in cooks' circumstances...Into this vacuum floated the possibility of a new breed of cook: the artist-cook, described with eloquence and conviction by the most influential practitioner and writer of the decades, Antonin Careme, who both orchestrated developments in contemporary haute cuisine and acted as role model to many aspiring cooks...Careme offered an intellectual platform for cooks to redefine their professional status, while the way in which high cookery was developing towards stratified working methods to achieve complex culinary ends gave practical reasons for at least some cooks to rise to the top of the heap...In his own writings, Careme refers to the rank of chef de cuisine..It was the invation of territory hitherto occupied by the steward of the household (in England) that gave the cook new status...when the cook began to compose his own menus as well as design his own pieces montees and supervise the order of service, it was a defininate extension of his duties into the realm of steward, and would be utter conquest when the clerk of the kitchen and provision of all supplies became subject to the chef as well.
The Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th edition, said the termoriginated in about 1973, and refers to it as "a self-service counter (as in a restaurant) featuring anarray of salad makings and dressings." The folks at Merriam Webster's may have been taking therecue from the Wendy's chain of fast food restaurants, which began featuring salad bars in the early1970s.
Fast-food establishments called popinae served fried fish, ham and sausages, as well as other delicacies, and Catullus mentions the pages of an unfortunate historian as being so useless as to be fin only for wrapping up mackerel, so a take-away service was also available.
It is possible to buy a freshly roasted hot dog, served in a roll, complete with sealed portion of mustard...One of the newest and most complex machines serves a complete meal from appetizer to dessert in a matter of seconds...Most of these hot food machines are installed in factories, schools, and military establishments.
Certain phases of foodservice operations reach a well-organized from as early as feudal times...Religious orders and royal households were among the earliest practitioners of quantity food production...Recordsshow that the food preparation carried out by the abbey brethren reached a much higher standard than food served in the innsat that time...The royal household, with its hundreds of retainers, and the households of nobles, often numbering as many as 150to 250 persons, also necessitated an efficient foodservice...In providing for the various needs, strict cost accounting was necessary, and here, perhaps, marks the beginning of the present-day scientific foodservice cost accounting..."
---, June Payne-Palacio & Monica Theis, editors [Prentice-Hall:Upper Saddle River NJ] 9th edition, 2001(p.