Use quotation marks for the titles of minor works (short poems, short stories, etc.) and parts of wholes (chapters in books, articles in papers, etc.).Use quotation marks for:
Omitted words in a quotation. If you leave words out of a quotation, use an ellipsis mark to indicate the omitted words. If you need to insert something within a quotation, use a pair of brackets to enclose the addition.
Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quotation but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.Examples:She stated, "Students often had difficulty using the APA style"(Jones, 1998, p.
Do not use dots at the beginning or end of a quotation unless it is important to indicate the quotation begins or ends in mid-sentence.
Place quotations longer than 40 words in a free-standing block of text, and omit quotation marks.
Keep in mind that when you are writing a paper about the same text and quoting from the same edition that everyone else in the class is, instructors will often allow you to use informal documentation. In this case just include the page number in parentheses after the quotation or reference to the text. To be sure, though, you should ask your course instructor.
APA differs from other formats in that it does not use either quotation marks or italics for titles of shorter works, such as essays that are in collections, lectures or journal articles. These shorter works are formatted in regular type.
MLA and Chicago, while agreeing on most citation styles, diverge on some points. In MLA the titles of online databases should be italicized; Chicago style says to set those in regular type. MLA says that all websites should be italicized while Chicago style says they should be in regular type.
By practicing the above rules for using italics and quotation marks you will find that it will become easier to determine what you should use. If you are uncertain about what to use, ask yourself if the title of a work appears inside a larger body of work or if it can stand alone. If the title belongs inside a larger body of work, use quotation marks. If the title is for a body of work that stands alone, it should be in italics. And remember that consistency is key, whichever style you choose.
If for the sake of brevity you wish to omit material from a quoted passage, use ellipsis points (three spaced periods) to indicate the omission.
Each of the style guides have their own rules when it comes to formatting titles. AP style is one of the simpler styles to remember, as it does not use italics in composition titles at all.
The quotations are used in accordance with the writer's purpose, i.e. to show how the development of Mrs. Ramsey's feelings indicates something about her personality.
Similarly, after you have decided that you do want to use material in quoted form, quote only the portions of the text specifically relevant to your point.
If it is particular words or phrases that "prove" your point, you do not need to quote the sentences they appear in; rather, incorporate the words and phrases into sentences expressing your own ideas.
If you are directly quoting from a work, you need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference.Use the author-date format to cite references in text.
General Logic: Underscore was originally used on typewriters because it was impossible to use italics given that there was only one set of keys. These days, underscore often means that a word is ‘hot’ on the computer, and with so much electronic transmission, I would advise against its use for other meanings than that. Instead, employ italics as they were originally meant to be used. Quotation marks can be reserved for short works such as articles in periodicals, book chapters, short poems and songs, and other shorter items. They can also be used to indicate dialogue and other quoted material when italics would be onerous to read.