During the border dispute that escalated into the Mexican War in May of 1846, 25-year-old Longstreet fought at the Battle of Cherubusco under General Winfield Scott, and a severe wound to the leg at Chapultepec prevented him from joining the U.S.
At the time he graduated from West Point as part of the class of 1842, he ranked 54th in a class of 56, 16 of whom would go on to be Civil War generals.Following graduation, Longstreet was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant with the U.S.
Bellows's God and General Longstreet: The Lost Cause And The Southern Mind effectively examines numerous characteristics within the mental process of southerners and their leaders before, during, and particularly after the Civil War.
A Union victory under Major-General John Pope seemed foregone when, on August 29, Longstreet and his men arrived to support Lee's battered troops and sent five divisions in to storm a two-mile-long section of the Union flank.
As previously stated, there is no record of any Longstreets outside of NewJersey prior to the Revolution (except for the immigrant ancestor on Long Island,and for a few named in the Penna. Archives who are not presently identifiable.)For almost a century, the family seemed content to live in Jersey. But as the19th century dawned and the nation had established its independence, the"Westward Movement" began and the Longstreets also began to move. The first,apparently, was one of the Upper Freehold group, who went to South Carolina andthence to Georgia shortly after the Revolution. His is the only branch of thefamily for which there is a published genealogy. (Mayes' GENEALOGY OF THEFAMILY OF LONGSTREET, WITH ITS RELATED FAMILIES...compiled and written forprivate information, Jackson, Mississippi, 1893, 181 pp. This small work isincomplete and contains some inaccuracies.)
Lee attempted to rest the blame for Gettysburg squarely on the shoulders of Longstreet, and revisionist historians attempted to reevaluate Lee's record as a general after his aura as the leader of the "Lost Cause" began to fade.
In defense of his criticism of Lee's tactical offensive at the Battle of Gettysburg, which Longstreet maintained resulted in the death of thousands of Confederate troops during Pickett's Charge, the former general published in 1896.
Although continuing to retain Lee's friendship until the general's death in 1870, many southerners--even those who had once hailed him as a military hero--now cast dispersions on his military record and blamed him for the disaster at Gettysburg.
Union General George Sherman now began his move south, creating the path of devastation through Atlanta into Savannah that became known as "Sherman's march to the Sea." A Union victory appeared imminent.Longstreet and his men wintered in eastern Tennessee and joined Lee in Virginia in late April of 1864.
However, Longstreet would not be there to participate; before the battle at Brown's Ferry he was ordered to Knoxville to engage in an unsuccessful effort to seize that city from Union General Ambrose Burnside.
Longstreet's decision to delay his attack resulted in one of the strongest offensive battles of the war; he continued on the offensive for the duration of the Chickamauga conflict, halting the Union advance southward and contributing to what became a costly victory for the South.In the days following Chickamauga, Longstreet urged General Bragg to pursue the withdrawing Union force and destroy it, but Bragg resisted, thereby losing the south's momentum.
The list of five is also in diagreement with (L-20), where Bergen statesthat the children of Dirck were: Stoffel, Classje, Adrian, Richard ofShrewsbury, Johannis (sup), and Samuel (sup). Berger may have counted JohannisHolsard of the Warshaer deed as a Longstreet, in error. Of his "Samuel", thereis no present explanation. Nor do we know why Bergen credited "Richard ofShrewsbury" to a place as a son of the Immigrant Dirck, for the Warshaer deedagain lists "Dirick" as a minor in 1698, and in any case born after 1690, as ason of Dirck and Johanna. In the light of such data as we now have, it seemslikely that this "Richard" is a grandson of Dirck by his son Stoffel, and theauthor of will #2659M (see later); that is, he is the Dirick b. 1696 to Stoffeland Mayke Lanen. Therefore we shall proceed to develop his family history onthe assumption that the immigrant ancestor founded his line upon the two eldersons, viz. Stoffel and Adrian (Aaron). Of his third son, by Johanna, we have nofurther data.
Longstreet and the First Corps were sent by rail to the aid of General Braxton Bragg, who with his ill-kempt force had been holding defensive positions near Lafayette, Georgia, since late December 1862.
Over 6,500 of Longstreet's men marched to their death, fell wounded on the field of battle, or were captured.After the Turning Point of the WarA devastating defeat for the Confederacy, the Battle of Gettysburg cost the south 3,903 dead, 18,735 wounded, and 5,425 missing; the Union army suffered 3,155 dead, 14,529 wounded, and 5,365 missing.