A 5 page paper that describes two approaches to teaching in the English as a second language classroom � the communicative approach and the total physical response approach. Both were introduced in the 1960s and 1970s and both have been adapted and modified to be more effective. Each approach is described, including its origins and how it has been adapted over the years. Bibliography lists 6 sources.
A 10 page paper that begins by explaining three TEFL teaching methods, PPP, ESA and Cooperative Learning. The writer explains the communicative approach and discusses role play and its benefits. A role play example is provided as part of the communicative approach. The writer discusses techniques for developing learner autonomy and independence. Bibliography lists 5 sources.
The weak version which has become more or less standard practice in the last ten years, stresses theimportance of providing learners with opportunities to use their English for communicative purposes and, characteristically, attempts to integrate such activities into a wider program of language teaching....
Both American and British proponents now see it as an approach (and not a method) that aims to (a) make communicative competence the goal of language teaching and (b) develop procedures for the teaching of the four language skills that acknowledge the interdependenceof language and communication.
The 'strong' version of communicative teaching, on the other hand,advances the claim that language is acquired through communication, so that it is not merely a question of activating an existing but inert knowledge of the language, but of stimulating the development of the language system itself.
The adoption of a communicative approach raises important issuesfor teacher training, materials development, and testing 'and evaluation. Questions that have been raised include whether a communicative approach can be applied at all levels in a language program, whether it is equally suited to ESL and EFL situations, whether it requiresexisting grammar-based syllabuses to be abandoned or merely revised, how such an approach can be evaluated, how suitable it is for non-native teachers, and how it can be adopted in situations where students must continue to take grammar-based tests.
CLTappealed to those who sought a more humanistic approach to teaching, one in which the interactive processes of communication received priority.
As Graham suggests, "those teachers who have thought carefully about how they learned a language, about which strategies are most appropriate for which tasks, are more likely to be successful in developing 'strategic competence' in their students" (p.
It could be that one version among the various proposals for syllabus models, exercise types, and classroom activitiesmay gain wider approval in the future, giving Communicative Language Teaching a status similar to other teaching methods.
The rapid adoption and implementation of the communicative approach also resulted from the fact that it quickly assumed the statusof orthodoxy in British language teaching circles, receiving the sanction and support of leading British applied linguists, language specialists, publishers, as well as institutions, such as the British Council (Richards 1985).
These might include language-based realia, such assigns, magazines, advertisements, and newspapers, or graphic and visual sources around which communicative activities can he built, such as maps, pictures, symbols, graphs, and charts.
If you have found 10 different LLS for writing explicitly used in your text, for example, you could highlight these as you go through the course, giving students clear examples, modelling how such LLS may be used in learning to write or in writing, and filling in the gaps with other LLS for writing that are neglected in the text but would be especially relevant for your learners.If you tend to be teacher-centred in your approach to teaching, you might use a specific number of tasks appropriate for your context from the collection by Gardner and Miller (1996) in order to provide students with opportunities to use and develop their LLS and to encourage more independent language learning both in class and in out-of-class activities for your course.
Some of these are in fact written around a largely structural syllabus, with slight reformatting to justify their claims to be based on a communicative approach.
Unlike some contemporary methodologies, such as Community Language Learning, practitioners of CommunicativeLanguage Teaching view materials as a way of influencing the quality of classroom interaction and language use.