Gates and Allen were skilled coders, but the history of software is littered with people just as smart or smarter who did not end up as billionaires. Their strength was on the business side. For years they remained a small company, but you didn’t need to be big to make software back then. The programs were simple, and they were all that was available, so you could charge a premium for them. The amount of person-hours that goes into a $50 piece of software today dwarfs that of a $50 item of software thirty years ago. In 1983, a word processor so primitive it advised users to put little stickers on their keyboards so they’d know which functions correlated to which keys retailed for $289. For this price it offered a tiny fraction of what most freeware can do today. It was a different world.
Computers are best seen as a series of abstraction layers, one on top of the other. Each layer is more complicated than the next down, and assembles the previous layer’s pieces into more complex, high-level structures. At the bottom you have the hardware itself: the central processing unit (CPU). The CPU consists of more than a billion transistors arranged to execute a particular “assembly” code that is native to that CPU. Assembly is the lowest layer of coding, where you are telling the CPU exactly what to do. And what you can tell it to do is often pretty limited: store this number here, retrieve this number from there, add or subtract these two numbers, and branch to different bits of code depending on some condition or other. In different contexts, these operations can take on different meanings, such as printing text onto a screen or sending something across a network, but the overall level of structure is very primitive. Analyzing and manipulating data is extremely tedious in Assembler.
Of note is the single major product success of late Microsoft: the Xbox gaming console. While the Xbox has yet to turn more than a tiny overall profit since its introduction in 2001, it has established itself as a stalwart of the gaming world. This could occur for two reasons: first, unlike anything having to do with the internet, it was completely isolated from the Windows and Office empires, and so did not run afoul of those groups; and second, there were clear, existing, profitable models to copy—Nintendo’s and Sony’s—and Microsoft was willing to lose billions of dollars in re-creating that model. For the last time, they caught up to their competitors in short order and equaled them, at the cost of turning no profit themselves.
Messenger puttered along for many years in limbo. It was unusual in being unkillable (because of all its users) and unassimilable by Windows or Office (because it was part of Microsoft’s internet strategy), which led, I believe, to it never amounting to anything. Taken on its own, it was a success, but a success on which Microsoft was unable to capitalize. Attempts to integrate it with other projects either fell prey to internecine executive warfare or else collapsed into consumer indifference. Despite Microsoft’s purchase of Skype, Messenger is still going today, a little Methuselah wandering in the Microsoft product mausoleum.
And so on. Getting the name of MSN Messenger Service wrong was a nice touch, but the rest of it is embarrassingly inept. This developer of a revolutionary new app takes time out from his coding not to promote his app but to take sides in the Microsoft-AOL war? Really? The email also includes a trace of the buffer overflow message itself, which I still remember vividly from the hours I spent staring at it, but the recipient paid more attention to the human language than the protocol messages. And if Phil Bucking’s text wasn’t suspicious enough, he’d also sent the message (via a Yahoo account, ha ha) from one of Microsoft’s computers at a Microsoft IP address, and the IP address showed up in the email headers. In geekspeak, this is what’s called a face-palm.
- Below are some hints to writing a research paper on Branagh's adaptation of As You Like It. - Saving Private Ryan’s historical accuracy will be the center of the project. - All Quiet on the Western Front research paper on Remarque's famous book reports on the human costs of war and is an anti-war novel.
Thankfully, most warring nations still use conventional weapons like grenades, rockets and otters which do not inflict that kind of damage as nuclear weapons.Wars bring untold miseries as well as political and economic instability.
World War 1 and World 11 combined have claimed millions of lives and in the African continent, tribal wars and regional wars continue to occur.The civil war between the Hutus and Tutsis in Rwanda tad claimed more than 3 million lives and in the Democratic Republic of Congo, more than 3 million people have died due to conflict between warlords.
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Microsoft and AOL were both, obviously, giant companies, and soon the press got hold of the story. On July 24, the New York Times put it on the front page: “In Cyberspace, Rivals Skirmish Over Messaging.” It was like reading about a boxing match that you yourself were in. AOL kept blocking us, wrote the paper of record. “But Microsoft refused to roll over. Late Friday, the software giant said it had revised its MSN Messenger program to circumvent America Online’s roadblock. Within hours, America Online answered that challenge with a new block.”
Whether wars are waged between countries (interstate) or inside the country between different sections of the communities, the effects are very damaging.According to experts, the main reasons or factors that contribute to wars are human greed for wealth and intolerance towards the other.
What was Microsoft’s secret? They were, and are, essentially a software company. While hobbyists in the 1970s were trying to figure out how to build a computer small enough to fit in your home, Bill Gates and his partner Paul Allen were figuring out how to write software for when the hobbyists finally figured it out. In 1980, they partnered with IBM to make an operating system, MS-DOS (for Microsoft Disk Operating System), for the first mass-manufactured personal computer. A few years later they partnered with Apple to give early Apple PC users functioning programs, including Microsoft Word. Gates and Allen’s insight was simply that PCs were going to be a big deal, and people would want software for the new machines.
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