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its need to be report based on smoking at metropolitan university, i have done a poster for it which was smoking at metropolitan university (2. Identification of the target group
3. The aims and objectives of the health promotion intervention
4. A clear rationale, justifying the chosen health promotion intervention
5. Outline the chosen health promotion approach to be used
6. A brief outline of the intervention
7. Indicate relevant ethical considerations
this was the poster and also i had a question air which was asking people if their smoke and if their want to stop smoking.
the report need in this way please.
and the references need to a Harvard style
There is an opportunity to integrate population health promotion into the prevention and management of chronic disease. This integration would broaden the CCM by directing additional efforts to reducing the burden of chronic disease, not just by reducing the impact on those who have a disease but also by supporting people and communities to be healthy. This strategy requires action on the determinants of health as well as delivering high quality healthcare services. Glasgow et al. (2001) suggest that there are numerous advantages to having a single model for the organization of healthcare for both disease prevention and management. The integration of population health promotion into an Expanded Chronic Care Model (Expanded CCM) will address the requirement to develop the Community portion of the CCM and to guide action that would address health determinants.
In this process, communities develop a stronger capacity to address the social, economic and environmental conditions affecting their health and well-being, such as poverty, social isolation and crime. As well, working from a population health promotion perspective enables administrators and governments the ability to plan programs and services with a greater confidence that these services are most needed by the people in that region.
The Expanded CCM supports the intrinsic role that the social determinants of health play in influencing individual, community and population health. Adopting an Expanded CCM will facilitate a fundamental shift in understanding about how individual client care fits within the concepts of population health. The new configuration (Figure 2) integrating the CCM with population health promotion demonstrates clear associations between the healthcare system and the community. This action-driven model will broaden the focus of practice to work towards health outcomes for individuals, communities and populations.
1. School Health promotion
2. Workplace Health promotion
3. Community-based Health promotion in health care settings
4. Rural Health promotion.
4. Conduct a google search for the marketing of e-cigarettes. How does the promotion of e-cigarettes compare to the
marketing of a health promotion initiative for smoking cessation? (500 words)
The Expanded Chronic Care Model described here merges population health promotion with clinical healthcare services and takes a first step in describing how these two approaches can complement one another. In real-life situations, the results include broader, interdisciplinary, and inclusive teams that work directly with community supports and leadership to deal with a client's current health concerns by addressing those issues that may lie at the root of some of these problems and are presenting barriers to his or her improvement. As well, the team may use the knowledge of those barriers to support the community in addressing issues, such as food security, social isolation or transportation. By working on both the prevention and treatment ends of the continuum from such a broad perspective, healthcare and other teams represent the best potential for improved health outcomes in the long term. It is this combined approach of effective population health promotion and improved treatment of disease, as suggested by the Expanded CCM, that will be our best weapon against the mounting burden of chronic disease.
The fields of population health and health promotion, brought together by the term "population health promotion," recognize and work with the broader determinants of health (e.g., housing, income, social supports) that can often serve as barriers for both individuals and communities to maintain optimum health. Such an approach includes creating public policies that promote health, strengthening community action, and creating supportive environments. As well, population health promotion works to develop personal and coping skills, and to re-orient health services so that they reflect a greater emphasis on prevention and public health issues. Such an approach, as presented here, includes community participation in planning, implementation and evaluation of programming and policy development. While this work can sometimes involve a long-term effort, practitioners in this field have demonstrated successful health outcomes that have effectively reduced healthcare costs and resulted in improved quality of life for clients and families.
While the CCM has certainly been helpful for a number of centres in various parts of the world, it does not reflect the diversity and complexities of those aspects of prevention and health promotion that go beyond clinical preventive services. As well, the current CCM presents a narrow perspective of the roles that both informal and formal community supports play in improving health. The functions of health promotion and disease/injuy prevention in the community are not explicit in the original CCM. The ways in which the fields of health promotion and healthcare can and do work together need to be reflected.
The incorporation of population health promotion into the CCM also requires practitioners to broaden definitions of outcomes and to determine new ways to measure them. In particular, for short-term and intermediate population health outcomes, projects may wish to track measures, such as the existence of public policies to support health, citizen participation in community decision-making and social cohesion.
Healthcare and other professionals can play a role in mobilizing communities to promote health, drawing upon their knowledge of the determinants of health and their power as leaders in the community. Two possible roles are suggested by the International Union of Health Promotion and Education (2000): mobilization of communities to create healthy environments, and various forms of advocacy. The Healthy Communities/Healthy Cities movement worldwide provides a good example of the former strategy (Ashton 1992). The evidence for the effectiveness of the Healthy Communities initiative in Canada demonstrates that its value lies in its ability to involve multiple partners at the community level to build a shared vision, seek consensus and take action on local concerns.