Mahatma Gandhi spoke, “It would be a great advantage if Lokamanya Tilak would speak in Hindi. He should, like Lord Dufferin and Lady Chelmsford, try to learn Hindi. Even Queen Victoria learned Hindi. It is my submission to Malaviyaji that he should see to it that, at the Congress next year, no speeches are made in any language except Hindi. My complaint is that, at the Congress yesterday, he did not speak in Hindi.” Mahatma wrote the resolution, “That, in view of the fact that the Hindi language is very widely used by the people of the different provinces and is easily understood by the majority of them, it seems practicable to take advantage of this language as a common language for India.”5
Mahatma Gandhi wrote, “Hindustani, i.e., a blend of Hindi and Urdu, should be accepted as the national language for future use. So, the future members of the councils will take a pledge that till the use of English is stopped in correspondence, etc., at the national level, Hindustani should be used in the Imperial Council and regional languages should be used in the Provincial Councils. They should resolve that Hindustani would be implemented as the compulsory co-language in middle schools with freedom to choose either the Devanagari or the Urdu script. English language will be accepted in the field of administrative matters,
diplomacy, and international trade.”6 Mahatma Gandhi wrote, “While on the subject of language, some experiences about Hindustani come to my mind. My use of this language is full of errors of grammar. Even so people listen to my Hindustani with love. At some places I tell students that I am ready to speak in English, but they prefer Hindustani. There were in particular three such occasions, in Allahabad, in Patna and in Nagpur, and on each one the students wanted me to speak in Hindustani. Everyone had believed that in Dacca I would have no option but to speak in English, but the people asked for Hindustani and listened to my speech with attention. I see that those public workers, like me, who speak Hindustani with facility, find their path clear wherever they go in India. There is some difficulty only in the Bengal and Madras presidencies. Experience shows every day that, with growing awakening among the ordinary people, public speakers have no choice but to speak in Hindustani once they leave their province. It is very necessary that such speakers in Gujarat, if they wish to work on the all-India plane, should learn Hindustani.”7
Mahatma Gandhi told, “a language which the largest number of people already know and understand and which the others can easily pick up. This language is indisputably Hindi. It is spoken and understood by both Hindus and Muslims of the North. It is called Urdu when it is written in the Urdu character. The Congress, in its famous resolution passed at the Cawnpore session in 1925, called this all-India speech Hindustani. And since that time, in theory at least, Hindustani has been the Rashtra-bhasha. I say “in theory” because even Congressmen have not practiced it as they should have.2 In 1920 a deliberate attempt was begun to recognize the importance of Indian languages for the political education of the masses, as also of an all-India common speech which politically-minded India could easily speak and which Congressmen from the different provinces could understand at all- India gatherings of the Congress. Such national language should enable one to understand and speak both forms of speech and write in both the scripts.” 16
Mahatma Gandhi wrote, “Although all people theoretically admit that Hindi alone can be the national language, yet the requisite love for the Hindi language is not apparent among young men of the provinces where the mother tongue is Hindi. Whatever literature is being published in Hindi is mostly translation. If, however, some original piece does come out it is found to be insignificant. It might be argued that Rabindranath is not born every day and Tulsidas is one among millions. Nevertheless, all of us can at least create a climate for the advent of poets like Tulsidas and Rabindranath, namely, a sincere zeal among young men. As their devotion to Hindi grows so would Hindi pervade the environment, leading to a flowering of a few genuine poets as well? Today neither the fervour nor the endeavour is manifest in the language of the young men having Hindi as their mother tongue. The grammatical errors occurring in the Hindi of the young men of U.P. and Bihar are not at all to be seen among the Bengalis and Maharashtrians. No doubt the national language is being propagated in provinces like Madras, etc.; but I have seen that Hindi teachers are not easily available. They are not energetic and their capacity for self-sacrifice is very limited. There ought to be innumerable young men ready to dedicate themselves exclusively to the propagation of Hindi; but I have not come across such persons, if any. Undoubtedly young men are available who are eager to serve at subsistence wages, but they are not equipped to teach Hindi.
Mahatma Gandhi wrote, “The Muslims were the first to create literature in Hindustani. Their fakirs and saints used this language for their religious teachings and explained the principles of the Sufi religion in it also. Later, poets adopted it, and because Muslims used the language there came about a mixture of Persian and Hindi words. The sounds of Persian and Arabic letters also crept in which are not found in Brij but which have remained in Hindi up to date. The colloquial language which the Muslims employed is the language spoken even today round about Meerut and Delhi. It is termed Khari Boli or Hindustani. Modern Hindustani, Hindi and Urdu are three forms of this language. Hindi and Urdu are its literary forms, into which many Sanskrit and Persian and Arabic words have freely crept. Hindustani is that form of the language which includes both Sanskrit and Persian words. Writers of Hindustani lean towards one or the other according to their taste. But they try to avoid both as much as possible. In my opinion neither Hindi nor Urdu should be the lingua franca of India. Either we must agree to call Hindi the language of the Hindus and Urdu that of the Muslims, or we must try to make Hindustani the common language. So long as we call either Hindi or Urdu the national language we are certain to raise a controversy.”17
Mahatma Gandhi clarified, “When what is really true is stated, it is an improper use of the word to call it anger. In anger a man does a strange thing. If I have to close down the Urdu Harijan it becomes necessary for me to do the same with the Nagari Harijan There is no question of anger in doing the right thing. What I consider proper, others such as the above correspondent may not. How am I concerned with that? It is good if what we think right is considered so by the whole world but that does not happen. Everything has at least two aspects. Now it remains for me to tell you whether I should stop one or both. It is true that when I started the Navajivan and Harijan in Devanagari there was no idea of both the scripts being used. If there was any such idea I did not know about it. there within a week. Voluntary evacuation by non-Muslims of all the mosques in the city which were being used for residential purposes or which had been converted into temples. Free movement of Muslims in areas where they used to stay before the disturbances.
Mahatma Gandhi wrote, “Urdu cannot become the national language, nor can Hindi. It matters little that Hindi may have the approval of the Union. Our national language will be that language which both the communities can speak and write.”26 Mahatma Gandhi wrote, “If the Muslims of the Indian Union affirm their loyalty to the Union, will they accept Hindustani as the national language and learn the Urdu and Nagari scripts? Unless you give your clear opinion on this, the work of the Hindustani Prachar Sabha will become very difficult. Cannot Maulana Azad give his clear opinion on the subject?
Mahatma Gandhi wrote, “I am glad the weather having cleared, it was possible to worship God in the open air. I hope you will cultivate the habit of collective prayers. I would like to impress upon you the need for learning Hindustani, our national language. Without a national language we could not call ourselves as of India.”24 Mahatma Gandhi distinguished, “What English-knowing Indian has not felt the shame and sorrow at his failure to discover an equivalent for an English word in either his mother tongue or the national language? A Gujarati lad has an English-Gujarati dictionary in such a case to help him; similarly a Urdu or Hindi knowing lad has his dictionary to fall back upon. But for Hindustani, which is neither Persianized Urdu nor Sanskritized Hindi and which is the tongue of the common folk of the North, whether Hindu or Mussalman, a writer has no dictionary to fall back upon. An attempt will be made through a column at least of the Harijan each week to furnish for English a Hindustani word or two, spelt in both Nagari and Urdu script. An endeavour will be made to give the names of those who will contribute their labour to this fascinating task. This is pioneer work and therefore will, like all pioneer work, have defects. Those who detect them will confer a favour by drawing the attention to them of the Editor. I would suggest to students that they copy out these words week by week in a notebook and add to or amend the attempt. They will find that the labour will combine recreation with instruction. Only those English words which are in common use have been selected from a Standard English dictionary. In reading the following, the reader should also know that no claim is made that the equivalents are the best possible or that they are exhaustive. They are a help to the searcher. The plan for this week is that those who are helping me to conduct the have prepared the first list.”25
Gandhi is the "Most Important Peace Hero of the 20th Century" because he taught the world that freedom from the oppressor could be obtained through nonviolent means.
Mahatma Gandhi wrote, “I have no doubt in my mind that Hindustani, i. e., a correct mixture of Hindi and Urdu, is the national language. But I have not yet been able to prove this in my own writings or speech. Let not readers of Harijan Sevak, however, be irritated. Perhaps it is as well that the attempt to create a national language has come into the hands of an in adept. After all the general mass of people come in this category. It will be through the efforts of all such that linguistic pundits will be enabled to create the proper mixture, easily understood by all. If readers of will keep on pointing out mistakes in language, it will help the journal to create and maintain a proper style. It will be the aim of to make its language sweet to the ear and easily understandable to every Indian. A language which is not generally understood is useless. It is unreal, if it cannot serve its purpose. All attempts at having a forced language have proved futile.”22 Mahatma Gandhi wrote, “The above article1 is not in praise of me. What is there to praise if a person performs some service deeming it his duty. Maulana Saheb is a scholar. He knows Persian and Arabic. He, therefore, knows Urdu very well. But he knows that neither Arabic-Persianized Urdu nor Sanskritized Hindi can be the language of the masses. Therefore, he wants a blend of Urdu and Hindi and speaks a mixture of both. I have requested him to contribute every week a brief article in Hindustani which can serve the readers of as a specimen of Hindustani.”23