He affects plainness, to cover his want of imagination: when he writes the serious way, the highest flight of his fancy is some miserable Antithesis, or seeming contradiction; and in the Comick he is still reaching at some thin conceit, the ghost of a Jest, and that too flies before him, never to be caught; these Swallows which we see before us on the Thames, are just resemblance of his wit: you may observe how near the water they stoop, how many proffers they make to dip, and yet how seldome they touch it: and when they do, 'tis but the surface: they skim over it but to catch a gnat, and then mount into the ayr and leave it. Well Gentlemen, said Eugenius, you may speak your pleasure of these Authors; but though I and some few more about the Town may give you a peaceable hearing, yet, assure your selves, there are multitudes who would think you malicious and them injur'd: especially him who you first described; he is the very Withers of the City: they have bought more Editions of his Works then would serve to lay under all the Pies at the Lord Mayor's Christmass. When his famous Poem first came out in the year 1660, I have seen them reading it in the midst of Change-time; many so vehement they were at it, that they lost their bargain by the Candles ends: but what will you say, if he has been received amongst the great Ones? I can assure you he is, this day, the envy of a great person, who is Lord in the Art of Quibbling; and who does not take it well, that any man should intrude so far into his Province. All I would wish replied Crites, is, that they who love his Writings, may still admire him, and his fellow Poet: qui Bavium non odit, &c. is curse sufficient. And farther, added Lisideius, I believe there is no man who writes well, but would think himself very hardly dealt with, if their Admirers should praise any thing of his: Nam quos contemnimus eorum quoque laudes contemnimus. There are so few who write well in this Age, said Crites, that me-thinks any praises should be wellcome; then neither rise to the dignity of the last Age, nor to any of the Ancients; and we may cry out of the Writers of this time, with more reason than Petronius of his, Pace vestra liceat dixisse, primi omnium eloquentiam perdidistis: you have debauched the true old Poetry so far, that Nature, which is the soul of it, is not in any of your Writings.
Tis true, those beauties of the frenchpoesy are such as will raise perfection higher where it is, but are not sufficient to give it where it is not: they are indeed the beauties of a statue, but not of a man, because not animated with the soul of poesy, which is imitation of humor and passions: and this lisideius himself, or any other, however biased to their party, cannot but acknowledge, if he will either compare the humors of our comedies, or the characters of our serious plays with is distinguished as not only an excellent poet, dramatist and author in his own right, but also as somebody whose great intellect and sound powers of argument enabled him to write peare was the homer, or father of our dramatick poets; jonson was the virgil, the pattern of elaborate writing; i admire him, but i love the english dramatists for example shakespeare, do not modify and transform their stories for dramatic draw not therefore after their lines, but those of nature; and having the life before us, besides the experience of all they knew, it is no wonder if we hit some airs and features which they have missed: i deny not what you urge of arts and sciences, that they have flourished in some ages more than others; but your instance in philosophy makes for me: for if natural causes be more known now than in the time of aristotle, because more studied, it follows that poesy and other arts may with the same pains arrive still nearer to perfection, and, that granted, it will rest for you to prove that they wrought more perfect images of human life than we; which, seeing in your discourse you have avoided to make good, it shall now be my task to show you some part of their defects, and some few excellencies of the moderns; and i think there is none among us can imagine i do it enviously, or with purpose to detract from them; for what interest of fame or profit can the living lose by the reputation of the dead?You said the dialogue of plays is presented as the effect of sudden thought, but no man speaks suddenly, or extempore in rhyme: and you inferred from thence, that rhyme, which you acknowledge to be proper to epic poesy cannot equally be proper to dramatick, unless we could suppose all men born so much more than poets, that verses should be made in them, not by to this the more than common emulation that was in those times of writing well; which though it be found in all ages and all persons that pretend to the same reputation; yet poesy being then in more esteem than now it is, had greater honors decreed to the professors of it; and consequently the rivalship was more high between them; they had judges ordained to decide their merit, and prizes to reward it: and historians have been diligent to record of aeschylus, euripides, sophocles, lycophron, and the rest of them, both who they were that vanquished in these wars of the theater, and how often they were crowned: while the asian kings, and grecian commonwealths scarce afforded them a nobler subject than the unmanly luxuries of a debauched court, or giddy intrigues of a factious a nutshell, john dryden in his essay, an essay on dramatic poesy, gives an account of the neoclassical a little while considering upon this demand, told eugenius he approved his propositions, and, if he pleased, he would limit their dispute to dramatic poesy; in which he thought it not difficult to prove, either that the ancients were superior to the moderns, or the last age to this of defines drama as:Just and lively image of human nature, representing its passions and humours, and the changes of fortune to which it is subject, for the delight and instruction of mankind
If they content themselves as Corneille did, with some flat design, which, like an ill Riddle, is found out e're if be half propos'd; such Plots we can make every way regular as easily as they: but when e're they endeavour to rise up to any quick turns and counterturns of Plot, as some of them have attempted, since Corneilles Playes have been less in vogue, you see they write as irregularly as we, though they cover it more speciously. Hence the reason is perspicuous, why no French Playes, when translated, have, or ever can succeed upon the English Stage. For, if you consider the Plots, our own are fuller of variety, if the writing ours are more quick and fuller of spirit: and therefore 'tis a strange mistake in those who decry the way of writing Playes in Verse, as if the English therein imitated the French. We have borrow'd nothing from them; our Plots are weav'd in English Loomes: we endeavour therein to follow the variety and greatness of characters which are deriv'd to us from Shakespeare and Fletcher: the copiousness and well-knitting of the intrigues we have from Johnson, and for the Verse it self we have English Presidents of elder date then any of Corneilles's Playes: (not to name our old Comedies before Shakespeare, which were all writ in verse of six feet, or Alexandrin's, such as the French now use) I can show in Shakespeare, many Scenes of rhyme together, and the like in Ben. Johnsons Tragedies: In Catiline and Sejanus sometimes thirty or forty lines; I mean besides the Chorus, or the Monologues, which by the way, show'd Ben. no enemy to this way of writing, especially if you look upon his sad Shepherd which goes sometimes upon rhyme, sometimes upon blanck Verse, like an Horse who eases himself upon Trot and Amble. You find him likewise commending Fletcher's Pastoral of the Faithful Shepherdess; which is for the most part Rhyme, though not refin'd to that purity to which it hath since been brought: And these examples are enough to clear us from a servile imitation of the French.
abridge v. To make shorter in words, keeping the essential features, leaning out minor particles.
abridgment n. A condensed form as of a book or play.
abrogate v. To abolish, repeal.
abrupt adj. Beginning, ending, or changing suddenly or with a break.
abscess n. A Collection of pus in a cavity formed within some tissue of the body.
abscission n. The act of cutting off, as in a surgical operation.
abscond v. To depart suddenly and secretly, as for the purpose of escaping arrest.
absence n. The fact of not being present or available.
absent-minded adj. Lacking in attention to immediate surroundings or business.
absolution n. Forgiveness, or passing over of offenses.
absolve v. To free from sin or its penalties.
absorb v. To drink in or suck up, as a sponge absorbs water.
absorption n. The act or process of absorbing.
abstain v. To keep oneself back (from doing or using something).
abstemious adj. Characterized by self denial or abstinence, as in the use of drink, food.
abstinence n. Self denial.
abstruse adj. Dealing with matters difficult to be understood.
absurd adj. Inconsistent with reason or common sense.
abundant adj. Plentiful.
abusive adj. Employing harsh words or ill treatment.
abut v. To touch at the end or boundary line.
abyss n. Bottomless gulf.
academic adj. Of or pertaining to an academy, college, or university.
academician n. A member of an academy of literature, art, or science.
academy n. Any institution where the higher branches of learning are taught.
accede v. To agree.
accelerate v. To move faster.
accept v. To take when offered.
access n. A way of approach or entrance; passage.
accessible adj. Approachable.
accession n. Induction or elevation, as to dignity, office, or government.
accessory n. A person or thing that aids the principal agent.
acclaim v. To utter with a shout.
accommodate v. To furnish something as a kindness or favor.
accompaniment n. A subordinate part or parts, enriching or supporting the leading part.
accompanist n. One who or that which accompanies.
accompany v. To go with, or be associated with, as a companion.
accomplice n. An associate in wrong-doing.
accomplish v. To bring to pass.
accordion n. A portable free-reed musical instrument.
accost v. To speak to.
account n. A record or statement of receipts and expenditures, or of business transactions.
accouter v. To dress.
accredit v. To give credit or authority to.
accumulate v. To become greater in quantity or number.
accuracy n. Exactness.
accurate adj. Conforming exactly to truth or to a standard.
accursed adj. Doomed to evil, misery, or misfortune.
accusation n. A charge of crime, misdemeanor, or error.
accusatory adj. Of, pertaining to, or involving an accusation.
accuse v. To charge with wrong doing, misconduct, or error.
accustom v. To make familiar by use.
acerbity n. Sourness, with bitterness and astringency.
acetate n. A salt of acetic acid.
acetic adj. Of, pertaining to, or of the nature of vinegar.
ache v. To be in pain or distress.
Achillean adj. Invulnerable.
achromatic adj. Colorless,
acid n. A sour substance.
acidify v. To change into acid.
acknowledge v. To recognize; to admit the genuineness or validity of.
acknowledgment n. Recognition.
acme n. The highest point, or summit.
acoustic adj. Pertaining to the act or sense of hearing.
acquaint v. To make familiar or conversant.
acquiesce v. To comply; submit.
acquiescence n. Passive consent.
acquire v. To get as one's own.
acquisition n. Anything gained, or made one's own, usually by effort or labor.
acquit v. To free or clear, as from accusation.
acquittal n. A discharge from accusation by judicial action.
acquittance n. Release or discharge from indebtedness, obligation, or responsibility.
acreage n. Quantity or extent of land, especially of cultivated land.
acrid adj. Harshly pungent or bitter.
acrimonious adj. Full of bitterness.
acrimony n. Sharpness or bitterness of speech or temper.
actionable adj. Affording cause for instituting an action, as trespass, slanderous words.
actuality n. Any reality.
actuary n. An officer, as of an insurance company, who calculates and states the risks and premiums.
actuate v. To move or incite to action.
acumen n. Quickness of intellectual insight, or discernment; keenness of discrimination.
acute adj. Having fine and penetrating discernment.
adamant n. Any substance of exceeding hardness or impenetrability.
addendum n. Something added, or to be added.
addle v. To make inefficient or worthless; muddle.
adduce v. To bring forward or name for consideration.
adhere v. To stick fast or together.
adherence n. Attachment.
adherent adj. Clinging or sticking fast.
adhesion n. The state of being attached or joined.
adieu inter. Good-by; farewell.
adjacency n. The state of being adjacent.
adjacent n. That which is near or bordering upon.
adjudge v. To award or bestow by formal decision.
adjunct n. Something joined to or connected with another thing, but holding a subordinate place.
adjuration n. A vehement appeal.
adjutant adj. Auxiliary.
administrator n. One who manages affairs of any kind.
admissible adj. Having the right or privilege of entry.
admittance n. Entrance, or the right or permission to enter.
admonish v. To warn of a fault.
admonition n. Gentle reproof.
ado n. unnecessary activity or ceremony.
adoration n. Profound devotion.
adroit adj. Having skill in the use of the bodily or mental powers.
adulterant n. An adulterating substance.
adulterate v. To make impure by the admixture of other or baser ingredients.
adumbrate v. To represent beforehand in outline or by emblem.
advent n. The coming or arrival, as of any important change, event, state, or personage.
adverse adj. Opposing or opposed.
adversity n. Misfortune.
advert v. To refer incidentally.
advertiser n. One who advertises, especially in newspapers.
advisory adj. Not mandatory.
advocacy n. The act of pleading a cause.
advocate n. One who pleads the cause of another, as in a legal or ecclesiastical court.
aerial adj. Of, pertaining to, or like the air.
aeronaut n. One who navigates the air, a balloonist.
aeronautics n. the art or practice of flying aircraft
aerostat n. A balloon or other apparatus floating in or sustained by the air.
aerostatics n. The branch of pneumatics that treats of the equilibrium, pressure, and mechanical properties.
affable adj. Easy to approach.
affect v. To act upon
affectation n. A studied or ostentatious pretense or attempt.
affiliate n. Some auxiliary person or thing.
affirmative adj. Answering yes; to a question at issue.
affix v. To fasten.
affluence n. A profuse or abundant supply of riches.
affront n. An open insult or indignity.
afire adv. & adj. On fire, literally or figuratively.
afoot adv. In progress.
aforesaid adj. Said in a preceding part or before.
afresh adv. Once more, after rest or interval.
afterthought n. A thought that comes later than its appropriate or expected time.
agglomerate v. To pile or heap together.
aggrandize v. To cause to appear greatly.
aggravate v. To make heavier, worse, or more burdensome.
aggravation n. The fact of being made heavier or more heinous, as a crime , offense, misfortune, etc.
aggregate n. The entire number, sum, mass, or quantity of something.
aggress v. To make the first attack.
aggression n. An unprovoked attack.
aggrieve v. To give grief or sorrow to.
aghast adj. Struck with terror and amazement.
agile adj. Able to move or act quickly, physically, or mentally.
agitate v. To move or excite (the feelings or thoughts).
agrarian adj. Pertaining to land, especially agricultural land.
aide-de-camp n. An officer who receives and transmits the orders of the general.
ailment n. Slight sickness.
airy adj. Delicate, ethereal.
akin adj. Of similar nature or qualities.
alabaster n. A white or delicately tinted fine-grained gypsum.
alacrity n. Cheerful willingness.
albeit conj. Even though.
albino n. A person with milky white skin and hair, and eyes with bright red pupil and usually pink iris.
album n. A book whose leaves are so made to form paper frames for holding photographs or the like.
alchemy n. Chemistry of the middle ages, characterized by the pursuit of changing base metals to gold.
alcohol n. A volatile, inflammable, colorless liquid of a penetrating odor and burning taste.
alcoholism n. A condition resulting from the inordinate or persistent use of alcoholic beverages.
alcove n. A covered recess connected with or at the side of a larger room.
alder n. Any shrub or small tree of the genus Alumnus, of the oak family.
alderman n. A member of a municipal legislative body, who usually exercises also certain judicial functions.
aldermanship n. The dignity, condition, office, or term of office of an alderman.
alias n. An assumed name.
alien n. One who owes allegiance to a foreign government.
alienable adj. Capable of being aliened or alienated, as lands.
alienate v. To cause to turn away.
alienation n. Estrangement.
aliment n. That which nourishes.
alkali n. Anything that will neutralize an acid, as lime, magnesia, etc.
allay v. To calm the violence or reduce the intensity of; mitigate.
allege v. To assert to be true, especially in a formal manner, as in court.
allegory n. The setting forth of a subject under the guise of another subject of aptly suggestive likeness.
alleviate v. To make less burdensome or less hard to bear.
alley n. A narrow street, garden path, walk, or the like.
alliance n. Any combination or union for some common purpose.
allot v. To assign a definite thing or part to a certain person.
allotment n. Portion.
allude v. To refer incidentally, or by suggestion.
allusion n. An indirect and incidental reference to something without definite mention of it.
alluvion n. Flood.
ally n. A person or thing connected with another, usually in some relation of helpfulness.
almanac n. A series of tables giving the days of the week together with certain astronomical information.
aloof adv. Not in sympathy with or desiring to associate with others.
altar n. Any raised place or structure on which sacrifices may be offered or incense burned.
alter v. To make change in.
alteration n. Change or modification.
altercate v. To contend angrily or zealously in words.
alternate n. One chosen to act in place of another, in case of the absence or incapacity of that other.
alternative n. Something that may or must exist, be taken or chosen, or done instead of something else.
altitude n. Vertical distance or elevation above any point or base-level, as the sea.
alto n. The lowest or deepest female voice or part.
altruism n. Benevolence to others on subordination to self-interest.
altruist n. One who advocates or practices altruism.
amalgam n. An alloy or union of mercury with another metal.
amalgamate v. To mix or blend together in a homogeneous body.
amateur adj. Practicing an art or occupation for the love of it, but not as a profession.
amatory adj. Designed to excite love.
ambidextrous adj. Having the ability of using both hands with equal skill or ease.
ambiguous adj. Having a double meaning.
ambitious adj. Eagerly desirous and aspiring.
ambrosial adj. Divinely sweet, fragrant, or delicious.
ambulance n. A vehicle fitted for conveying the sick and wounded.
ambulate v. To walk about
ambush n. The act or state of lying concealed for the purpose of surprising or attacking the enemy.
ameliorate v. To relieve, as from pain or hardship
amenable adj. Willing and ready to submit.
Americanism n. A peculiar sense in which an English word or phrase is used in the United States.
amicable adj. Done in a friendly spirit.
amity n. Friendship.
amorous adj. Having a propensity for falling in love.
amorphous adj. Without determinate shape.
amour n. A love-affair, especially one of an illicit nature.
ampere n. The practical unit of electric-current strength.
ampersand n. The character &; and.
amphibious adj. Living both on land and in water.
amphitheater n. An edifice of elliptical shape, constructed about a central open space or arena.
amplitude n. Largeness.
amply adv. Sufficiently.
amputate v. To remove by cutting, as a limb or some portion of the body.
amusement n. Diversion.
anachronism n. Anything occurring or existing out of its proper time.
anagram n. The letters of a word or phrase so transposed as to make a different word or phrase.
analogous adj. Corresponding (to some other) in certain respects, as in form, proportion, relations.
analogy n. Reasoning in which from certain and known relations or resemblance others are formed.
analyst n. One who analyzes or makes use of the analytical method.
analyze v. To examine minutely or critically.
anarchy n. Absence or utter disregard of government.
anathema n. Anything forbidden, as by social usage.
anatomy n. That branch of morphology which treats of the structure of organisms.
ancestry n. One's ancestors collectively.
anecdote n. A brief account of some interesting event or incident.
anemia n. Deficiency of blood or red corpuscles.
anemic adj. Affected with anemia.
anemometer n. An instrument for measuring the force or velocity of wind.
anesthetic adj. Pertaining to or producing loss of sensation.
anew adv. Once more.
angelic adj. Saintly.
Anglophobia n. Hatred or dread of England or of what is English.
Anglo-Saxon n. The entire English race wherever found, as in Europe, the United States, or India.
angular adj. Sharp-cornered.
anhydrous adj. Withered.
animadversion n. The utterance of criticism or censure.
animadvert v. To pass criticism or censure.
animalcule n. An animal of microscopic smallness.
animate v. To make alive.
animosity n. Hatred.
annalist n. Historian.
annals n. A record of events in their chronological order, year by year.
annex v. To add or affix at the end.
annihilate v. To destroy absolutely.
annotate v. To make explanatory or critical notes on or upon.
annual adj. Occurring every year.
annuity n. An annual allowance, payment, or income.
annunciation n. Proclamation.
anode n. The point where or path by which a voltaic current enters an electrolyte or the like.
anonymous adj. Of unknown authorship.
antagonism n. Mutual opposition or resistance of counteracting forces, principles, or persons.
Antarctic adj. Pertaining to the south pole or the regions near it.
ante v. In the game of poker, to put up a stake before the cards are dealt.
antecede v. To precede.
antecedent n. One who or that which precedes or goes before, as in time, place, rank, order, or causality.
antechamber n. A waiting room for those who seek audience.
antedate v. To assign or affix a date to earlier than the actual one.
antediluvian adj. Of or pertaining to the times, things, events before the great flood in the days of Noah.
antemeridian adj. Before noon.
antemundane adj. Pertaining to time before the world's creation.
antenatal adj. Occurring or existing before birth.
anterior adj. Prior.
anteroom n. A room situated before and opening into another, usually larger.
anthology n. A collection of extracts from the writings of various authors.
anthracite n. Hard coal.
anthropology n. The science of man in general.
anthropomorphous adj. Having or resembling human form.
antic n. A grotesque, ludicrous, or fantastic action.
Antichrist n. Any opponent or enemy of Christ, whether a person or a power.
anticlimax n. A gradual or sudden decrease in the importance or impressiveness of what is said.
anticyclone n. An atmospheric condition of high central pressure, with currents flowing outward.
antidote n. Anything that will counteract or remove the effects of poison, disease, or the like.
antilogy n. Inconsistency or contradiction in terms or ideas.
antipathize v. To show or feel a feeling of antagonism, aversion, or dislike.
antiphon n. A response or alteration of responses, generally musical.
antiphony n. An anthem or other composition sung responsively.
antipodes n. A place or region on the opposite side of the earth.
antiquary n. One who collects and examines old things, as coins, books, medals, weapons, etc.
antiquate v. To make old or out of date.
antique adj. Pertaining to ancient times.
antiseptic n. Anything that destroys or restrains the growth of putrefactive micro-organisms.
antislavery adj. Opposed to human slavery.
antispasmodic adj. Tending to prevent or relieve non-inflammatory spasmodic affections.
antistrophe n. The inversion of terms in successive classes, as in "the home of joy and the joy of home".
antitoxin n. A substance which neutralizes the poisonous products of micro-organisms.
antonym n. A word directly opposed to another in meaning.
anxious adj. Distressed in mind respecting some uncertain matter.
apathy n. Insensibility to emotion or passionate feeling.
aperture n. Hole.
apex n. The highest point, as of a mountain.
aphorism n. Proverb.
apiary n. A place where bees are kept.
apogee n. The climax.
apology n. A disclaimer of intentional error or offense.
apostasy n. A total departure from one's faith or religion.
apostate adj. False.
apostle n. Any messenger commissioned by or as by divine authority.
apothecary n. One who keeps drugs for sale and puts up prescriptions.
apotheosis n. Deification.
appall v. To fill with dismay or horror.
apparent adj. Easily understood.
apparition n. Ghost.
appease v. To soothe by quieting anger or indignation.
appellate adj. Capable of being appealed to.
appellation n. The name or title by which a particular person, class, or thing is called.
append v. To add or attach, as something accessory, subordinate, or supplementary.
appertain v. To belong, as by right, fitness, association, classification, possession, or natural relation.
apposite adj. Appropriate.
apposition n. The act of placing side by side, together, or in contact.
appraise v. To estimate the money value of.
appreciable adj. Capable of being discerned by the senses or intellect.
apprehend v. To make a prisoner of (a person) in the name of the law.
apprehensible adj. Capable of being conceived.
approbation n. Sanction.
appropriate adj. Suitable for the purpose and circumstances.
aqueduct n. A water-conduit, particularly one for supplying a community from a distance.
aqueous adj. Of, pertaining to, or containing water.
arbiter n. One chosen or appointed, by mutual consent of parties in dispute, to decide matters.
arbitrary adj. Fixed or done capriciously.
arbitrate v. To act or give judgment as umpire.
arbor n. A tree.
arboreal adj. Of or pertaining to a tree or trees.
arborescent adj. Having the nature of a tree.
arboretum n. A botanical garden or place devoted to the cultivation of trees or shrubs.
arboriculture n. The cultivation of trees or shrubs.
arcade n. A vaulted passageway or street; a roofed passageway having shops, etc., opening from it.
archaic adj. Antiquated
archaism n. Obsolescence.
archangel n. An angel of high rank.
archbishop n. The chief of the bishops of an ecclesiastical province in the Greek, Roman, and Anglican church.
archdeacon n. A high official administrator of the affairs of a diocese.
archaeology n. The branch of anthropology concerned with the systematic investigation of the relics of man.
archetype n. A prototype.
archipelago n. Any large body of water studded with islands, or the islands collectively themselves.
ardent adj. Burning with passion.
ardor n. Intensity of passion or affection.
arid adj. Very dry.
aristocracy n. A hereditary nobility
aristocrat n. A hereditary noble or one nearly connected with nobility.
armada n. A fleet of war-vessels.
armful n. As much as can be held in the arm or arms.
armory n. An arsenal.
aroma n. An agreeable odor.
arraign v. To call into court, as a person indicted for crime, and demand whether he pleads guilty or not.
arrange v. To put in definite or proper order.
arrangement n. The act of putting in proper order, or the state of being put in order.
arrant adj. Notoriously bad.
arrear n. Something overdue and unpaid.
arrival n. A coming to stopping-place or destination.
arrogant adj. Unduly or excessively proud, as of wealth, station, learning, etc.
arrogate v. To take, demand, or claim, especially presumptuously or without reasons or grounds.
Artesian well n. A very deep bored well. water rises due to underground pressure
artful adj. Characterized by craft or cunning.
Arthurian adj. Pertaining to King Arthur, the real or legendary hero of British poetic story.
artifice n. Trickery.
artless adj. Ingenuous.
ascendant adj. Dominant.
ascension n. The act of rising.
ascent n. A rising, soaring, or climbing.
ascetic adj. Given to severe self-denial and practicing excessive abstinence and devotion.
ascribe v. To assign as a quality or attribute.
asexual adj. Having no distinct sexual organs.
ashen adj. Pale.
askance adv. With a side or indirect glance or meaning.
asperity n. Harshness or roughness of temper.
aspirant n. One who seeks earnestly, as for advancement, honors, place.
aspiration n. An earnest wish for that which is above one's present reach.
aspire v. To have an earnest desire, wish, or longing, as for something high and good, not yet attained.
assailant n. One who attacks.
assassin n. One who kills, or tries to kill, treacherously or secretly.
assassinate v. To kill, as by surprise or secret assault, especially the killing of some eminent person.
assassination n. Murderer, as by secret assault or treachery.
assay n. The chemical analysis or testing of an alloy ore.
assent v. To express agreement with a statement or matter of opinion.
assess v. To determine the amount of (a tax or other sum to be paid).
assessor n. An officer whose duty it is to assess taxes.
assets n. pl. Property in general, regarded as applicable to the payment of debts.
assiduous adj. Diligent.
assignee n. One who is appointed to act for another in the management of certain property and interests.
assimilate v. To adapt.
assonance n. Resemblance or correspondence in sound.
assonant adj. Having resemblance of sound.
assonate v. To accord in sound, especially vowel sound.
assuage v. To cause to be less harsh, violent, or severe, as excitement, appetite, pain, or disease.
astringent adj. Harsh in disposition or character.
astute adj. Keen in discernment.
atheism n. The denial of the existence of God.
athirst adj. Wanting water.
athwart adv. From side to side.
atomizer n. An apparatus for reducing a liquid to a fine spray, as for disinfection, inhalation, etc.
atone v. To make amends for.
atonement n. Amends, reparation, or expiation made from wrong or injury.
atrocious adj. Outrageously or wantonly wicked, criminal, vile, or cruel.
atrocity n. Great cruelty or reckless wickedness.
attache n. A subordinate member of a diplomatic embassy.
attest v. To certify as accurate, genuine, or true.
attorney-general n. The chief law-officer of a government.
auburn adj. Reddish-brown, said usually of the hair.
audacious adj. Fearless.
audible adj. Loud enough to be heard.
audition n. The act or sensation of hearing.
auditory adj. Of or pertaining to hearing or the organs or sense of hearing.
augment v. To make bigger.
augur v. To predict.
Augustinian adj. Pertaining to St. Augustine, his doctrines, or the religious orders called after him.
aura n. Pervasive psychic influence supposed to emanate from persons
aural adj. Of or pertaining to the ear.
auricle n. One of the two chambers of the heart which receives the blood from the veins.
auricular adj. Of or pertaining to the ear, its auricle, or the sense of hearing.
auriferous adj. Containing gold.
aurora n. A luminous phenomenon in the upper regions of the atmosphere.
auspice n. favoring, protecting, or propitious influence or guidance.
austere adj. Severely simple; unadorned.
autarchy n. Unrestricted power.
authentic adj. Of undisputed origin.
authenticity n. The state or quality of being genuine, or of the origin and authorship claimed.
autobiography n. The story of one's life written by himself.
autocracy n. Absolute government.
autocrat n. Any one who claims or wields unrestricted or undisputed authority or influence.
automaton n. Any living being whose actions are or appear to be involuntary or mechanical.
autonomous adj. Self-governing.
autonomy n. Self-government.
autopsy n. The examination of a dead body by dissection to ascertain the cause of death.
autumnal adj. Of or pertaining to autumn.
auxiliary n. One who or that which aids or helps, especially when regarded as subsidiary or accessory.
avalanche n. The fall or sliding of a mass of snow or ice down a mountain-slope, often bearing with it rock.
avarice n. Passion for getting and keeping riches.
aver v. To assert as a fact.
averse adj. Reluctant.
aversion n. A mental condition of fixed opposition to or dislike of some particular thing.
avert v. To turn away or aside.
aviary n. A spacious cage or enclosure in which live birds are kept.
avidity n. Greediness.
avocation n. Diversion.
avow v. To declare openly.
awaken v. To arouse, as emotion, interest, or the like.
awry adv. & adj. Out of the proper form, direction, or position.
aye adv. An expression of assent.
azalea n. A flowering shrub.
azure n. The color of the sky.
Baconian adj. Of or pertaining to Lord Bacon or his system of philosophy.
bacterium n. A microbe.
badger v. To pester.
baffle v. To foil or frustrate.
bailiff n. An officer of court having custody of prisoners under arraignment.
baize n. A single-colored napped woolen fabric used for table-covers, curtains, etc.
bale n. A large package prepared for transportation or storage.
baleful adj. Malignant.
ballad n. Any popular narrative poem, often with epic subject and usually in lyric form.
balsam n. A medical preparation, aromatic and oily, used for healing.
banal adj. Commonplace.
barcarole n. A boat-song of Venetian gondoliers.
barograph n. An instrument that registers graphically and continuously the atmospheric pressure.
barometer n. An instrument for indicating the atmospheric pressure per unit of surface.
barring prep. Apart from.
baritone adj. Having a register higher than bass and lower than tenor.
bask v. To make warm by genial heat.
bass adj. Low in tone or compass.
baste v. To cover with melted fat, gravy, while cooking.
baton n. An official staff borne either as a weapon or as an emblem of authority or privilege.
battalion n. A body of infantry composed of two or more companies, forming a part of a regiment.
batten n. A narrow strip of wood.
batter n. A thick liquid mixture of two or more materials beaten together, to be used in cookery.
bauble n. A trinket.
bawl v. To proclaim by outcry.
beatify v. To make supremely happy.
beatitude n. Any state of great happiness.
beau n. An escort or lover.
becalm v. To make quiet.
beck v. To give a signal to, by nod or gesture.
bedaub v. To smear over, as with something oily or sticky.
bedeck v. To cover with ornament.
bedlam n. Madhouse.
befog v. To confuse.
befriend v. To be a friend to, especially when in need.
beget v. To produce by sexual generation.
begrudge v. To envy one of the possession of.
belate v. To delay past the proper hour.
belay v. To make fast, as a rope, by winding round a cleat.
belie v. To misrepresent.
believe v. To accept as true on the testimony or authority of others.
belittle v. To disparage.
belle n. A woman who is a center of attraction because of her beauty, accomplishments, etc.
bellicose adj. Warlike.
belligerent adj. Manifesting a warlike spirit.
bemoan v. To lament
benediction n. a solemn invocation of the divine blessing.
benefactor n. A doer of kindly and charitable acts.
benefice n. A church office endowed with funds or property for the maintenance of divine service.
beneficent adj. Characterized by charity and kindness.
beneficial adj. Helpful.
beneficiary n. One who is lawfully entitled to the profits and proceeds of an estate or property.
benefit n. Helpful result.
benevolence n. Any act of kindness or well-doing.
benevolent adj. Loving others and actively desirous of their well-being.
benign adj. Good and kind of heart.
benignant adj. Benevolent in feeling, character, or aspect.
benignity n. Kindness of feeling, disposition, or manner.
benison n. Blessing.
bequeath v. To give by will.
bereave v. To make desolate with loneliness and grief.
berth n. A bunk or bed in a vessel, sleeping-car, etc.
beseech v. To implore.
beset v. To attack on all sides.
besmear v. To smear over, as with any oily or sticky substance.
bestial adj. Animal.
bestrew v. To sprinkle or cover with things strewn.
bestride v. To get or sit upon astride, as a horse.
bethink v. To remind oneself.
betide v. To happen to or befall.
betimes adv. In good season or time.
betroth v. To engage to marry.
betrothal n. Engagement to marry.
bevel n. Any inclination of two surfaces other than 90 degrees.
bewilder v. To confuse the perceptions or judgment of.
bibliomania n. The passion for collecting books.
bibliography n. A list of the words of an author, or the literature bearing on a particular subject.
bibliophile n. One who loves books.
bibulous adj. Fond of drinking.
bide v. To await.
biennial n. A plant that produces leaves and roots the first year and flowers and fruit the second.
bier n. A horizontal framework with two handles at each end for carrying a corpse to the grave.
bigamist n. One who has two spouses at the same time.
bigamy n. The crime of marrying any other person while having a legal spouse living.
bight n. A slightly receding bay between headlands, formed by a long curve of a coast-line.
bilateral adj. Two-sided.
bilingual adj. Speaking two languages.
biograph n. A bibliographical sketch or notice.
biography n. A written account of one's life, actions, and character.
biology n. The science of life or living organisms.
biped n. An animal having two feet.
birthright n. A privilege or possession into which one is born.
bitterness n. Acridity, as to the taste.
blase adj. Sated with pleasure.
blaspheme v. To indulge in profane oaths.
blatant adj. Noisily or offensively loud or clamorous.
blaze n. A vivid glowing flame.
blazon v. To make widely or generally known.
bleak adj. Desolate.
blemish n. A mark that mars beauty.
blithe adj. Joyous.
blithesome adj. Cheerful.
blockade n. The shutting up of a town, a frontier, or a line of coast by hostile forces.
boatswain n. A subordinate officer of a vessel, who has general charge of the rigging, anchors, etc.
bodice n. A women's ornamental corset-shaped laced waist.
bodily adj. Corporeal.
boisterous adj. Unchecked merriment or animal spirits.
bole n. The trunk or body of a tree.
bolero n. A Spanish dance, illustrative of the passion of love, accompanied by caste nets and singing.
boll n. A round pod or seed-capsule, as a flax or cotton.
bolster v. To support, as something wrong.
bomb n. A hollow projectile containing an explosive material.
bombard v. To assail with any missile or with abusive speech.
bombardier n. A person who has charge of mortars, bombs, and shells.
bombast n. Inflated or extravagant language, especially on unimportant subjects.
boorish adj. Rude.
bore v. To weary by tediousness or dullness.
borough n. An incorporated village or town.
bosom n. The breast or the upper front of the thorax of a human being, especially of a woman.
botanical adj. Connected with the study or cultivation of plants.
botanize v. To study plant-life.
botany n. The science that treats of plants.
bountiful adj. Showing abundance.
Bowdlerize v. To expurgate in editing (a literary composition) by omitting words or passages.
bowler n. In cricket, the player who delivers the ball.
boycott v. To place the products or merchandise of under a ban.
brae n. Hillside.
braggart n. A vain boaster.
brandish v. To wave, shake, or flourish triumphantly or defiantly, as a sword or spear.
bravado n. An aggressive display of boldness.
bravo interj. Well done.
bray n. A loud harsh sound, as the cry of an ass or the blast of a horn.
braze v. To make of or ornament with brass.
brazier n. An open pan or basin for holding live coals.
breach n. The violation of official duty, lawful right, or a legal obligation.
breaker n. One who trains horses, dogs, etc.
breech n. The buttocks.
brethren n. pl. Members of a brotherhood, gild, profession, association, or the like.
brevity n. Shortness of duration.
bric-a-brac n. Objects of curiosity or for decoration.
bridle n. The head-harness of a horse consisting of a head-stall, a bit, and the reins.
brigade n. A body of troops consisting of two or more regiments.
brigadier n. General officer who commands a brigade, ranking between a colonel and a major-general.
brigand n. One who lives by robbery and plunder.
brimstone n. Sulfur.
brine n. Water saturated with salt.
bristle n. One of the coarse, stiff hairs of swine: used in brush-making, etc.
Britannia n. The United Kingdom of Great Britain.
Briticism n. A word, idiom, or phrase characteristic of Great Britain or the British.
brittle adj. Fragile.
broach v. To mention, for the first time.
broadcast adj. Disseminated far and wide.
brogan n. A coarse, heavy shoe.
brogue n. Any dialectic pronunciation of English, especially that of the Irish people.
brokerage n. The business of making sales and purchases for a commission; a broker.
bromine n. A dark reddish-brown, non-metallic liquid element with a suffocating odor.
bronchitis n. Inflammation of the bronchial tubes.
bronchus n. Either of the two subdivisions of the trachea conveying air into the lungs.
brooch n. An article of jewelry fastened by a hinged pin and hook on the underside.
brotherhood n. Spiritual or social fellowship or solidarity.
browbeat v. To overwhelm, or attempt to do so, by stern, haughty, or rude address or manner.
brusque adj. Somewhat rough or rude in manner or speech.
buffoon n. A clown.
buffoonery n. Low drollery, coarse jokes, etc.
bulbous adj. Of, or pertaining to, or like a bulb.
bullock n. An ox.
bulrush n. Any one of various tall rush-like plants growing in damp ground or water.
bulwark n. Anything that gives security or defense.
bumper n. A cup or glass filled to the brim, especially one to be drunk as a toast or health.
bumptious adj. Full of offensive and aggressive self-conceit.
bungle v. To execute clumsily.
buoyancy n. Power or tendency to float on or in a liquid or gas.
buoyant adj. Having the power or tendency to float or keep afloat.
bureau n. A chest of drawers for clothing, etc.
bureaucracy n. Government by departments of men transacting particular branches of public business.
burgess n. In colonial times, a member of the lower house of the legislature of Maryland or Virginia.
burgher n. An inhabitant, citizen or freeman of a borough burgh, or corporate town.
burnish v. To make brilliant or shining.
bursar n. A treasurer.
bustle v. To hurry.
butt v. To strike with or as with the head, or horns.
butte n. A conspicuous hill, low mountain, or natural turret, generally isolated.
buttress n. Any support or prop.
by-law n. A rule or law adopted by an association, a corporation, or the like.
cabal n. A number of persons secretly united for effecting by intrigue some private purpose.
cabalism n. Superstitious devotion to one's religion.
cabinet n. The body of men constituting the official advisors of the executive head of a nation.
cacophony n. A disagreeable, harsh, or discordant sound or combination of sounds or tones.
cadaverous adj. Resembling a corpse.
cadence n. Rhythmical or measured flow or movement, as in poetry or the time and pace of marching troops.
cadenza n. An embellishment or flourish, prepared or improvised, for a solo voice or instrument.
caitiff adj. Cowardly.
cajole v. To impose on or dupe by flattering speech.
cajolery n. Delusive speech.
calculable adj. That may be estimated by reckoning.
calculus n. A concretion formed in various parts of the body resembling a pebble in hardness.
callosity n. The state of being hard and insensible.
callow adj. Without experience of the world.
calorie n. Amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree centigrade.
calumny n. Slander.
Calvary n. The place where Christ was crucified.
Calvinism n. The system of doctrine taught by John Calvin.
Calvinize v. To teach or imbue with the doctrines of Calvinism.
came n. A leaden sash-bar or grooved strip for fastening panes in stained-glass windows.
cameo n. Any small engraved or carved work in relief.
campaign n. A complete series of connected military operations.
Canaanite n. A member of one of the three tribes that dwelt in the land of Canaan, or western Palestine.
canary adj. Of a bright but delicate yellow.
candid adj. Straightforward.
candor n. The quality of frankness or outspokenness.
canine adj. Characteristic of a dog.
canon n. Any rule or law.
cant v. To talk in a singsong, preaching tone with affected solemnity.
cantata n. A choral composition.
canto n. One of the divisions of an extended poem.
cantonment n. The part of the town or district in which the troops are quartered.
capacious adj. Roomy.
capillary n. A minute vessel having walls composed of a single layer of cells.
capitulate v. To surrender or stipulate terms.
caprice n. A whim.
caption n. A heading, as of a chapter, section, document, etc.
captious adj. Hypercritical.
captivate v. To fascinate, as by excellence. eloquence, or beauty.
carcass n. The dead body of an animal.
cardiac adj. Pertaining to the heart.
cardinal adj. Of prime or special importance.
caret n. A sign (^) placed below a line, indicating where omitted words, etc., should be inserted.
caricature n. a picture or description in which natural characteristics are exaggerated or distorted.
carnage n. Massacre.
carnal adj. Sensual.
carnivorous adj. Eating or living on flesh.
carouse v. To drink deeply and in boisterous or jovial manner.
carrion n. Dead and putrefying flesh.
cartilage n. An elastic animal tissue of firm consistence.
cartridge n. A charge for a firearm, or for blasting.
caste n. The division of society on artificial grounds.
castigate v. To punish.
casual adj. Accidental, by chance.
casualty n. A fatal or serious accident or disaster.
cataclysm n. Any overwhelming flood of water.
cataract n. Opacity of the lens of the eye resulting in complete or partial blindness.
catastrophe n. Any great and sudden misfortune or calamity.
cathode n. The negative pole or electrode of a galvanic battery.
Catholicism n. The system, doctrine, and practice of the Roman Catholic Church.
catholicity n. Universal prevalence or acceptance.
cat-o-nine-tails n. An instrument consisting of nine pieces of cord, formerly used for flogging in the army and navy.
caucus n. A private meeting of members of a political party to select candidates.
causal adj. Indicating or expressing a cause.
caustic adj. Sarcastic and severe.
cauterize v. To burn or sear as with a heated iron.
cede v. To pass title to.
censor n. An official examiner of manuscripts empowered to prohibit their publication.
censorious adj. Judging severely or harshly.
census n. An official numbering of the people of a country or district.
centenary adj. Pertaining to a hundred years or a period of a hundred years.
centiliter n. A hundredth of a liter.
centimeter n. A length of one hundredth of a meter.
centurion n. A captain of a company of one hundred infantry in the ancient Roman army.
cereal adj. Pertaining to edible grain or farinaceous seeds.
ceremonial adj. Characterized by outward form or ceremony.
ceremonious adj. Observant of ritual.
cessation n. Discontinuance, as of action or motion.
cession n. Surrender, as of possessions or rights.
chagrin n. Keen vexation, annoyance, or mortification, as at one's failures or errors.
chameleon adj. Changeable in appearance.
chancery n. A court of equity, as distinguished from a common-law court.
chaos n. Any condition of which the elements or parts are in utter disorder and confusion.
characteristic n. A distinctive feature.
characterize v. To describe by distinctive marks or peculiarities.
charlatan n. A quack.
chasm n. A yawning hollow, as in the earth's surface.
chasten v. To purify by affliction.
chastise v. To subject to punitive measures.
chastity n. Sexual or moral purity.
chateau n. A castle or manor-house.
chattel n. Any article of personal property.
check v. To hold back.
chiffon n. A very thin gauze used for trimmings, evening dress, etc.
chivalry n. The knightly system of feudal times with its code, usages and practices.
cholera n. An acute epidemic disease.
choleric adj. Easily provoked to anger.
choral adj. Pertaining to, intended for, or performed by a chorus or choir.
Christ n. A title of Jesus
christen v. To name in baptism.
Christendom n. That part of the world where Christianity is generally professed.
chromatic adj. Belonging, relating to, or abounding in color.
chronology n. The science that treats of computation of time or of investigation and arrangement of events.
chronometer n. A portable timekeeper of the highest attainable precision.
cipher v. To calculate arithmetically. (also a noun meaning zero or nothing)
circulate v. To disseminate.
circumference n. The boundary-line of a circle.
circumlocution n. Indirect or roundabout expression.
circumnavigate v. To sail quite around.
circumscribe v. To confine within bounds.
circumspect adj. Showing watchfulness, caution, or careful consideration.
citadel n. Any strong fortress.
cite v. To refer to specifically.
claimant n. One who makes a claim or demand, as of right.
clairvoyance n. Intuitive sagacity or perception.
clamorous adj. Urgent in complaint or demand.
clan n. A tribe.
clandestine adj. Surreptitious.
clangor n. Clanking or a ringing, as of arms, chains, or bells; clamor.
clarify v. To render intelligible.
clarion n. A small shrill trumpet or bugle.
classify v. To arrange in a class or classes on the basis of observed resemblances and differences.
clearance n. A certificate from the proper authorities that a vessel has complied with the law and may sail.
clemency n. Mercy.
clement adj. Compassionate.
close-hauled adj. Having the sails set for sailing as close to the wind as possible.
clothier n. One who makes or sells cloth or clothing.
clumsy adj. Awkward of movement.
coagulate v. To change into a clot or a jelly, as by heat, by chemical action, or by a ferment.
coagulant adj. Producing coagulation.
coalescence n. The act or process of coming together so as to form one body, combination, or product.
coalition n. Combination in a body or mass.
coddle v. To treat as a baby or an invalid.
codicil n. A supplement adding to, revoking, or explaining in the body of a will.
coerce v. To force.
coercion n. Forcible constraint or restraint, moral or physical.
coercive adj. Serving or tending to force.
cogent adj. Appealing strongly to the reason or conscience.
cognate adj. Akin.
cognizant adj. Taking notice.
cohere v. To stick together.
cohesion n. Consistency.
cohesive adj. Having the property of consistency.
coincide v. To correspond.
coincidence n. A circumstance so agreeing with another: often implying accident.
coincident adj. Taking place at the same time.
collaborate v. To labor or cooperate with another or others, especially in literary or scientific pursuits.
collapse v. To cause to shrink, fall in, or fail.
collapsible adj. That may or can collapse.
colleague n. An associate in professional employment.
collective adj. Consisting of a number of persons or objects considered as gathered into a mass, or sum.
collector n. One who makes a collection, as of objects of art, books, or the like.
collegian n. A college student.
collide v. To meet and strike violently.
collier n. One who works in a coal-mine.
collision n. Violent contact.
colloquial adj. Pertaining or peculiar to common speech as distinguished from literary.
colloquialism n. Form of speech used only or chiefly in conversation.
colloquy n. Conversation.
collusion n. A secret agreement for a wrongful purpose.
colossus n. Any strikingly great person or object.
comely adj. Handsome.
comestible adj. Fit to be eaten.
comical adj. Funny.
commemorate v. To serve as a remembrance of.
commentary n. A series of illustrative or explanatory notes on any important work.
commingle v. To blend.
commissariat n. The department of an army charged with the provision of its food and water and daily needs.
commission v. To empower.
commitment n. The act or process of entrusting or consigning for safe-keeping.
committal n. The act, fact, or result of committing, or the state of being
commodity n. Something that is bought and sold.
commotion n. A disturbance or violent agitation.
commute v. To put something, especially something less severe, in place of.
comparable adj. Fit to be compared.
comparative adj. Relative.
comparison n. Examination of two or more objects with reference to their likeness or unlikeness.
compensate v. To remunerate.
competence n. Adequate qualification or capacity.
competent adj. Qualified.
competitive adj. characterized by rivalry.
competitor n. A rival.
complacence n. Satisfaction with one's acts or surroundings.
complacent adj. Pleased or satisfied with oneself.
complaisance n. Politeness.
complaisant adj. Agreeable.
complement v. To make complete.
complex adj. Complicated.
compliant adj. Yielding.
complicate v. To make complex, difficult, or hard to deal with.
complication n. An intermingling or combination of things or parts, especially in a perplexing manner.
complicity n. Participation or partnership, as in wrong-doing or with a wrong-doer.
compliment v. To address or gratify with expressions of delicate praise.
component n. A constituent element or part.
comport v. To conduct or behave (oneself).
composure n. Calmness.
comprehensible adj. Intelligible.
comprehension n. Ability to know.
comprehensive adj. Large in scope or content.
compress v. To press together or into smaller space.
compressible adj. Capable of being pressed into smaller compass.
compression n. Constraint, as by force or authority.
comprise v. To consist of.
compulsion n. Coercion.
compulsory adj. Forced.
compunction n. Remorseful feeling.
compute v. To ascertain by mathematical calculation.
concede v. To surrender.
conceit n. Self-flattering opinion.
conceive v. To form an idea, mental image or thought of.
concerto n. A musical composition.
concession n. Anything granted or yielded, or admitted in response to a demand, petition, or claim.
conciliate v. To obtain the friendship of.
conciliatory adj. Tending to reconcile.
conclusive adj. Sufficient to convince or decide.
concord n. Harmony.
concordance n. Harmony.
concur v. To agree.
concurrence n. Agreement.
concurrent adj. Occurring or acting together.
concussion n. A violent shock to some organ by a fall or a sudden blow.
condensation n. The act or process of making dense or denser.
condense v. To abridge.
condescend v. To come down voluntarily to equal terms with inferiors.
condolence n. Expression of sympathy with a person in pain, sorrow, or misfortune.
conduce v. To bring about.
conducive adj. Contributing to an end.
conductible adj. Capable of being conducted or transmitted.
conduit n. A means for conducting something, particularly a tube, pipe, or passageway for a fluid.
confectionery n. The candy collectively that a confectioner makes or sells, as candy.
confederacy n. A number of states or persons in compact or league with each other, as for mutual aid.
confederate n. One who is united with others in a league, compact, or agreement.
confer v. To bestow.
conferee n. A person with whom another confers.
confessor n. A spiritual advisor.
confidant n. One to whom secrets are entrusted.
confide v. To reveal in trust or confidence.
confidence n. The state or feeling of trust in or reliance upon another.
confident adj. Assured.
confinement n. Restriction within limits or boundaries.
confiscate v. To appropriate (private property) as forfeited to the public use or treasury.
conflagration n. A great fire, as of many buildings, a forest, or the like.
confluence n. The place where streams meet.
confluent n. A stream that unites with another.
conformance n. The act or state or conforming.
conformable adj. Harmonious.
conformation n. General structure, form, or outline.
conformity n. Correspondence in form, manner, or use.
confront v. To encounter, as difficulties or obstacles.
congeal v. To coagulate.
congenial adj. Having kindred character or tastes.
congest v. To collect into a mass.
congregate v. To bring together into a crowd.
coniferous adj. Cone-bearing trees.
conjecture n. A guess.
conjoin v. To unite.
conjugal adj. Pertaining to marriage, marital rights, or married persons.
conjugate adj. Joined together in pairs.
conjugation n. The state or condition of being joined together.
conjunction n. The state of being joined together, or the things so joined.
connive v. To be in collusion.
connoisseur n. A critical judge of art, especially one with thorough knowledge and sound judgment of art.
connote v. To mean; signify.
connubial adj. Pertaining to marriage or matrimony.
conquer v. To overcome by force.
consanguineous adj. Descended from the same parent or ancestor.
conscience n. The faculty in man by which he distinguishes between right and wrong in character and conduct.
conscientious adj. Governed by moral standard.
conscious adj. Aware that one lives, feels, and thinks.
conscript v. To force into military service.
consecrate v. To set apart as sacred.
consecutive adj. Following in uninterrupted succession.
consensus n. A collective unanimous opinion of a number of persons.
conservatism n. Tendency to adhere to the existing order of things.
conservative adj. Adhering to the existing order of things.
conservatory n. An institution for instruction and training in music and declamation.
consign v. To entrust.
consignee n. A person to whom goods or other property has been entrusted.
consignor n. One who entrusts.
consistency n. A state of permanence.
console v. To comfort.
consolidate v. To combine into one body or system.
consonance n. The state or quality of being in accord with.
consonant adj. Being in agreement or harmony with.
consort n. A companion or associate.
conspicuous adj. Clearly visible.
conspirator n. One who agrees with others to cooperate in accomplishing some unlawful purpose.
conspire v. To plot.
constable n. An officer whose duty is to maintain the peace.
constellation n. An arbitrary assemblage or group of stars.
consternation n. Panic.
constituency n. The inhabitants or voters in a district represented in a legislative body.
constituent n. One who has the right to vote at an election.
constrict v. To bind.
consul n. An officer appointed to reside in a foreign city, chiefly to represent his country.
consulate n. The place in which a consul transacts official business.
consummate v. To bring to completion.
consumption n. Gradual destruction, as by burning, eating, etc., or by using up, wearing out, etc.
consumptive adj. Designed for gradual destruction.
contagion n. The communication of disease from person to person.
contagious adj. Transmitting disease.
contaminate v. To pollute.
contemplate v. To consider thoughtfully.
contemporaneous adj. Living, occurring, or existing at the same time.
contemporary adj. Living or existing at the same time.
contemptible adj. Worthy of scorn or disdain.
contemptuous adj. Disdainful.
contender n. One who exerts oneself in opposition or rivalry.
contiguity n. Proximity.
contiguous adj. Touching or joining at the edge or boundary.
continence n. Self-restraint with respect to desires, appetites, and passion.
contingency n. Possibility of happening.
contingent adj. Not predictable.
continuance n. Permanence.
continuation n. Prolongation.
continuity n. Uninterrupted connection in space, time, operation, or development.
continuous adj. Connected, extended, or prolonged without separation or interruption of sequence.
contort v. To twist into a misshapen form.
contraband n. Trade forbidden by law or treaty.
contradiction n. The assertion of the opposite of that which has been said.
contradictory adj. Inconsistent with itself.
contraposition n. A placing opposite.
contravene v. To prevent or obstruct the operation of.
contribution n. The act of giving for a common purpose.
contributor n. One who gives or furnishes, in common with others, for a common purpose.
contrite adj. Broken in spirit because of a sense of sin.
contrivance n. The act planning, devising, inventing, or adapting something to or for a special purpose.
contrive v. To manage or carry through by some device or scheme.
control v. To exercise a directing, restraining, or governing influence over.
controller n. One who or that which regulates or directs.
contumacious adj. Rebellious.
contumacy n. Contemptuous disregard of the requirements of rightful authority.
contuse v. To bruise by a blow, either with or without the breaking of the skin.
contusion n. A bruise.
convalesce v. To recover after a sickness.
convalescence n. The state of progressive restoration to health and strength after the cessation of disease.
convalescent adj. Recovering health after sickness.
convene v. To summon or cause to assemble.
convenience n. Fitness, as of time or place.
converge v. To cause to incline and approach nearer together.
convergent adj. Tending to one point.
conversant adj. Thoroughly informed.
conversion n. Change from one state or position to another, or from one form to another.
convertible adj. Interchangeable.
convex adj. Curving like the segment of the globe or of the surface of a circle.
conveyance n. That by which anything is transported.
convivial adj. Devoted to feasting, or to good-fellowship in eating or drinking.
convolution n. A winding motion.
convolve v. To move with a circling or winding motion.
convoy n. A protecting force accompanying property in course of transportation.
convulse v. To cause spasms in.
convulsion n. A violent and abnormal muscular contraction of the body.
copious adj. Plenteous.
coquette n. A flirt.
cornice n. An ornamental molding running round the walls of a room close to the ceiling.
cornucopia n. The horn of plenty, symbolizing peace and prosperity.
corollary n. A proposition following so obviously from another that it requires little demonstration.
coronation n. The act or ceremony of crowning a monarch.
coronet n. Inferior crown denoting, according to its form, various degrees of noble rank less than sovereign.
corporal adj. Belonging or relating to the body as opposed to the mind.
corporate adj. Belonging to a corporation.
corporeal adj. Of a material nature; physical.
corps n. A number or body of persons in some way associated or acting together.
corpse n. A dead body.
corpulent adj. Obese.
corpuscle n. A minute particle of matter.
correlate v. To put in some relation of connection or correspondence.
correlative adj. Mutually involving or implying one another.
corrigible adj. Capable of reformation.
corroborate v. To strengthen, as proof or conviction.
corroboration n. Confirmation.
corrode v. To ruin or destroy little by little.
corrosion n. Gradual decay by crumbling or surface disintegration.
corrosive n. That which causes gradual decay by crumbling or surface disintegration.
corruptible adj. Open to bribery.
corruption n. Loss of purity or integrity.
cosmetic adj. Pertaining to the art of beautifying, especially the complexion.
cosmic adj. Pertaining to the universe.
cosmogony n. A doctrine of creation or of the origin of the universe.
cosmography n. The science that describes the universe, including astronomy, geography, and geology.
cosmology n. The general science of the universe.
cosmopolitan adj. Common to all the world.
cosmopolitanism n. A cosmopolitan character.
cosmos n. The world or universe considered as a system, perfect in order and arrangement.
counter-claim n. A cross-demand alleged by a defendant in his favor against the plaintiff.
counteract v. To act in opposition to.
counterbalance v. To oppose with an equal force.
countercharge v. To accuse in return.
counterfeit adj. Made to resemble something else.
counterpart n. Something taken with another for the completion of either.
countervail v. To offset.
counting-house n. A house or office used for transacting business, bookkeeping, correspondence, etc.
countryman n. A rustic.
courageous adj. Brave.
course n. Line of motion or direction.
courser n. A fleet and spirited horse.
courtesy n. Politeness originating in kindness and exercised habitually.
covenant n. An agreement entered into by two or more persons or parties.
covert adj. Concealed, especially for an evil purpose.
covey n. A flock of quails or partridges.
cower v. To crouch down tremblingly, as through fear or shame.
coxswain n. One who steers a rowboat, or one who has charge of a ship's boat and its crew under an officer.
crag n. A rugged, rocky projection on a cliff or ledge.
cranium n. The skull of an animal, especially that part enclosing the brain.
crass adj. Coarse or thick in nature or structure, as opposed to thin or fine.
craving n. A vehement desire.
creak n. A sharp, harsh, squeaking sound.
creamery n. A butter-making establishment.
creamy adj. Resembling or containing cream.
credence n. Belief.
credible adj. Believable.
credulous adj. Easily deceived.
creed n. A formal summary of fundamental points of religious belief.
crematory adj. A place for cremating dead bodies.
crevasse n. A deep crack or fissure in the ice of a glacier.
crevice n. A small fissure, as between two contiguous surfaces.
criterion n. A standard by which to determine the correctness of a judgment or conclusion.
critique n. A criticism or critical review.
crockery n. Earthenware made from baked clay.
crucible n. A trying and purifying test or agency.
crusade n. Any concerted movement, vigorously prosecuted, in behalf of an idea or principle.
crustacean adj. Pertaining to a division of arthropods, containing lobsters, crabs, crawfish, etc.
crustaceous adj. Having a crust-like shell.
cryptogram n. Anything written in characters that are secret or so arranged as to have hidden meaning.
crystallize v. To bring together or give fixed shape to.
cudgel n. A short thick stick used as a club.
culinary adj. Of or pertaining to cooking or the kitchen.
cull v. To pick or sort out from the rest.
culpable adj. Guilty.
culprit n. A guilty person.
culvert n. Any artificial covered channel for the passage of water through a bank or under a road, canal.
cupidity n. Avarice.
curable adj. Capable of being remedied or corrected.
curator n. A person having charge as of a library or museum.
curio n. A piece of bric-a-brac.
cursive adj. Writing in which the letters are joined together.
cursory adj. Rapid and superficial.
curt adj. Concise, compressed, and abrupt in act or expression.
curtail v. To cut off or cut short.
curtsy n. A downward movement of the body by bending the knees.
cycloid adj. Like a circle.
cygnet n. A young swan.
cynical adj. Exhibiting moral skepticism.
cynicism n. Contempt for the opinions of others and of what others value.
cynosure n. That to which general interest or attention is directed.
daring adj. Brave.
darkling adv. Blindly.
Darwinism n. The doctrine that natural selection has been the prime cause of evolution of higher forms.
dastard n. A base coward.
datum n. A premise, starting-point, or given fact.
dauntless adj. Fearless.
day-man n. A day-laborer.
dead-heat n. A race in which two or more competitors come out even, and there is no winner.
dearth n. Scarcity, as of something customary, essential ,or desirable.
death's-head n. A human skull as a symbol of death.
debase v. To lower in character or virtue.
debatable adj. Subject to contention or dispute.
debonair adj. Having gentle or courteous bearing or manner.
debut n. A first appearance in society or on the stage.
decagon n. A figure with ten sides and ten angles.
decagram n. A weight of 10 grams.
decaliter n. A liquid and dry measure of 10 liters.
decalogue n. The ten commandments.
Decameron n. A volume consisting of ten parts or books.
decameter n. A length of ten meters.
decamp v. To leave suddenly or unexpectedly.
decapitate v. To behead.
decapod adj. Ten-footed or ten-armed.
decasyllable n. A line of ten syllables.
deceit n. Falsehood.
deceitful adj. Fraudulent.
deceive v. To mislead by or as by falsehood.
decency n. Moral fitness.
decent adj. Characterized by propriety of conduct, speech, manners, or dress.
deciduous adj. Falling off at maturity as petals after flowering, fruit when ripe, etc.
decimal adj. Founded on the number 10.
decimate v. To destroy a measurable or large proportion of.
decipher v. To find out the true words or meaning of, as something hardly legible.
decisive ad. Conclusive.
declamation n. A speech recited or intended for recitation from memory in public.
declamatory adj. A full and formal style of utterance.
declarative adj. Containing a formal, positive, or explicit statement or affirmation.
declension n. The change of endings in nouns and adj. to express their different relations of gender.
decorate v. To embellish.
decorous adj. Suitable for the occasion or circumstances.
decoy n. Anything that allures, or is intended to allures into danger or temptation.
decrepit adj. Enfeebled, as by old age or some chronic infirmity.
dedication n. The voluntary consecration or relinquishment of something to an end or cause.
deduce v. To derive or draw as a conclusion by reasoning from given premises or principles.
deface v. To mar or disfigure the face or external surface of.
defalcate v. To cut off or take away, as a part of something.
defamation n. Malicious and groundless injury done to the reputation or good name of another.
defame v. To slander.
default n. The neglect or omission of a legal requirement.
defendant n. A person against whom a suit is brought.
defensible adj. Capable of being maintained or justified.
defensive adj. Carried on in resistance to aggression.
defer v. To delay or put off to some other time.
deference n. Respectful submission or yielding, as to another's opinion, wishes, or judgment.
defiant adj. Characterized by bold or insolent opposition.
deficiency n. Lack or insufficiency.
deficient adj. Not having an adequate or proper supply or amount.
definite adj. Having an exact signification or positive meaning.
deflect v. To cause to turn aside or downward.
deforest v. To clear of forests.
deform v. To disfigure.
deformity n. A disfigurement.
defraud v. To deprive of something dishonestly.
defray v. To make payment for.
degeneracy n. A becoming worse.
degenerate v. To become worse or inferior.
degradation n. Diminution, as of strength or magnitude.
degrade v. To take away honors or position from.
dehydrate v. To deprive of water.
deify v. To regard or worship as a god.
deign v. To deem worthy of notice or account.
deist n. One who believes in God, but denies supernatural revelation.
deity n. A god, goddess, or divine person.
deject v. To dishearten.
dejection n. Melancholy.
delectable adj. Delightful to the taste or to the senses.
delectation n. Delight.
deleterious adj. Hurtful, morally or physically.
delicacy n. That which is agreeable to a fine taste.
delineate v. To represent by sketch or diagram.
deliquesce v. To dissolve gradually and become liquid by absorption of moisture from the air.
delirious adj. Raving.
delude v. To mislead the mind or judgment of.
deluge v. To overwhelm with a flood of water.
delusion n. Mistaken conviction, especially when more or less enduring.
demagnetize v. To deprive (a magnet) of magnetism.
demagogue n. An unprincipled politician.
demeanor n. Deportment.
demented adj. Insane.
demerit n. A mark for failure or bad conduct.
demise n. Death.
demobilize v. To disband, as troops.
demolish v. To annihilate.
demonstrable adj. Capable of positive proof.
demonstrate v. To prove indubitably.
demonstrative adj. Inclined to strong exhibition or expression of feeling or thoughts.
demonstrator n. One who proves in a convincing and conclusive manner.
demulcent n. Any application soothing to an irritable surface
demurrage n. the detention of a vessel beyond the specified time of sailing.
dendroid adj. Like a tree.
dendrology n. The natural history of trees.
denizen n. Inhabitant.
denominate v. To give a name or epithet to.
denomination n. A body of Christians united by a common faith and form of worship and discipline.
denominator n. Part of a fraction which expresses the number of equal parts into which the unit is divided.
denote v. To designate by word or mark.
denouement n. That part of a play or story in which the mystery is cleared up.
denounce v. To point out or publicly accuse as deserving of punishment, censure, or odium.
dentifrice n. Any preparation used for cleaning the teeth.
denude v. To strip the covering from.
denunciation n. The act of declaring an action or person worthy of reprobation or punishment.
deplete v. To reduce or lessen, as by use, exhaustion, or waste.
deplorable adj. Contemptible.
deplore v. To regard with grief or sorrow.
deponent adj. Laying down.
depopulate v. To remove the inhabitants from.
deport v. To take or send away forcibly, as to a penal colony.
deportment n. Demeanor.
deposition n. Testimony legally taken on interrogatories and reduced to writing, for use as evidence in court.
depositor n. One who makes a deposit, or has an amount deposited.
depository n. A place where anything is kept in safety.
deprave v. To render bad, especially morally bad.
deprecate v. To express disapproval or regret for, with hope for the opposite.
depreciate v. To lessen the worth of.
depreciation n. A lowering in value or an underrating in worth.
depress v. To press down.
depression n. A falling of the spirits.
depth n. Deepness.
derelict adj. Neglectful of obligation.
deride v. To ridicule.
derisible adj. Open to ridicule.
derision n. Ridicule.
derivation n. That process by which a word is traced from its original root or primitive form and meaning.
derivative adj. Coming or acquired from some origin.
derive v. To deduce, as from a premise.
dermatology n. The branch of medical science which relates to the skin and its diseases.
derrick n. An apparatus for hoisting and swinging great weights.
descendant n. One who is descended lineally from another, as a child, grandchild, etc.
descendent adj. Proceeding downward.
descent n. The act of moving or going downward.
descry v. To discern.
desert v. To abandon without regard to the welfare of the abandoned
desiccant n. Any remedy which, when applied externally, dries up or absorbs moisture, as that of wounds.
designate v. To select or appoint, as by authority.
desist v. To cease from action.
desistance n. Cessation.
despair n. Utter hopelessness and despondency.
desperado n. One without regard for law or life.
desperate adj. Resorted to in a last extremity, or as if prompted by utter despair.
despicable adj. Contemptible.
despite prep. In spite of.
despond v. To lose spirit, courage, or hope.
despondent adj. Disheartened.
despot n. An absolute and irresponsible monarch.
despotism n. Any severe and strict rule in which the judgment of the governed has little or no part.
destitute adj. Poverty-stricken.
desultory adj. Not connected with what precedes.
deter v. To frighten away.
deteriorate v. To grow worse.
determinate adj. Definitely limited or fixed.
determination n. The act of deciding.
deterrent adj. Hindering from action through fear.
detest v. To dislike or hate with intensity.
detract v. To take away in such manner as to lessen value or estimation.
detriment n. Something that causes damage, depreciation, or loss.
detrude v. To push down forcibly.
deviate v. To take a different course.
devilry n. Malicious mischief.
deviltry n. Wanton and malicious mischief.
devious adj. Out of the common or regular track.
devise v. To invent.
devout adj. Religious.
dexterity n. Readiness, precision, efficiency, and ease in any physical activity or in any mechanical work.
diabolic adj. Characteristic of the devil.
diacritical adj. Marking a difference.
diagnose v. To distinguish, as a disease, by its characteristic phenomena.
diagnosis n. Determination of the distinctive nature of a disease.
dialect n. Forms of speech collectively that are peculiar to the people of a particular district.
dialectician n. A logician.
dialogue n. A formal conversation in which two or more take part.
diaphanous adj. Transparent.
diatomic adj. Containing only two atoms.
diatribe n. A bitter or malicious criticism.
dictum n. A positive utterance.
didactic adj. Pertaining to teaching.
difference n. Dissimilarity in any respect.
differentia n. Any essential characteristic of a species by reason of which it differs from other species.
differential adj. Distinctive.
differentiate v. To acquire a distinct and separate character.
diffidence n. Self-distrust.
diffident adj. Affected or possessed with self-distrust.
diffusible adj. Spreading rapidly through the system and acting quickly.
diffusion n. Dispersion.
dignitary n. One who holds high rank.
digraph n. A union of two characters representing a single sound.
digress v. To turn aside from the main subject and for a time dwell on some incidental matter.
dilapidated pa. Fallen into decay or partial ruin.
dilate v. To enlarge in all directions.
dilatory adj. Tending to cause delay.
dilemma n. A situation in which a choice between opposing modes of conduct is necessary.
dilettante n. A superficial amateur.
diligence n. Careful and persevering effort to accomplish what is undertaken.
dilute v. To make more fluid or less concentrated by admixture with something.
diminution n. Reduction.
dimly adv. Obscurely.
diphthong n. The sound produced by combining two vowels in to a single syllable or running together the sounds.
diplomacy n. Tact, shrewdness, or skill in conducting any kind of negotiations or in social matters.
diplomat n. A representative of one sovereign state at the capital or court of another.
diplomatic adj. Characterized by special tact in negotiations.
diplomatist n. One remarkable for tact and shrewd management.
disagree v. To be opposite in opinion.
disallow v. To withhold permission or sanction.
disappear v. To cease to exist, either actually or for the time being.
disappoint v. To fail to fulfill the expectation, hope, wish, or desire of.
disapprove v. To regard with blame.
disarm v. To deprive of weapons.
disarrange v. To throw out of order.
disavow v. To disclaim responsibility for.
disavowal n. Denial.
disbeliever n. One who refuses to believe.
disburden v. To disencumber.
disburse v. To pay out or expend, as money from a fund.
discard v. To reject.
discernible adj. Perceivable.
disciple n. One who believes the teaching of another, or who adopts and follows some doctrine.
disciplinary adj. Having the nature of systematic training or subjection to authority.
discipline v. To train to obedience.
disclaim v. To disavow any claim to, connection with, or responsibility to.
discolor v. To stain.
discomfit v. To put to confusion.
discomfort n. The state of being positively uncomfortable.
disconnect v. To undo or dissolve the connection or association of.
disconsolate adj. Grief-stricken.
discontinuance n. Interruption or intermission.
discord n. Absence of harmoniousness.
discountenance v. To look upon with disfavor.
discover v. To get first sight or knowledge of, as something previously unknown or unperceived.
discredit v. To injure the reputation of.
discreet adj. Judicious.
discrepant adj. Opposite.
discriminate v. To draw a distinction.
discursive adj. Passing from one subject to another.
discussion n. Debate.
disenfranchise v. To deprive of any right privilege or power
disengage v. To become detached.
disfavor n. Disregard.
disfigure v. To impair or injure the beauty, symmetry, or appearance of.
dishabille n. Undress or negligent attire.
dishonest adj. Untrustworthy.
disillusion v. To disenchant.
disinfect v. To remove or destroy the poison of infectious or contagious diseases.
disinfectant n. A substance used to destroy the germs of infectious diseases.
disinherit v. To deprive of an inheritance.
disinterested adj. Impartial.
disjunctive adj. Helping or serving to disconnect or separate.
dislocate v. To put out of proper place or order.
dismissal n. Displacement by authority from an office or an employment.
dismount v. To throw down, push off, or otherwise remove from a horse or the like.
disobedience n. Neglect or refusal to comply with an authoritative injunction.
disobedient adj. Neglecting or refusing to obey.
disown v. To refuse to acknowledge as one's own or as connected with oneself.
disparage v. To regard or speak of slightingly.
disparity n. Inequality.
dispel v. To drive away by or as by scattering in different directions.
dispensation n. That which is bestowed on or appointed to one from a higher power.
displace v. To put out of the proper or accustomed place.
dispossess v. To deprive of actual occupancy, especially of real estate.
disputation n. Verbal controversy.
disqualify v. To debar.
disquiet v. To deprive of peace or tranquillity.
disregard v. To take no notice of.
disreputable adj. Dishonorable or disgraceful.
disrepute n. A bad name or character.
disrobe v. To unclothe.
disrupt v. To burst or break asunder.
dissatisfy v. To displease.
dissect v. To cut apart or to pieces.
dissection n. The act or operation of cutting in pieces, specifically of a plant or an animal.
dissemble v. To hide by pretending something different.
disseminate v. To sow or scatter abroad, as seed is sown.
dissension n. Angry or violent difference of opinion.
dissent n. Disagreement.
dissentient n. One who disagrees.
dissentious adj. Contentious.
dissertation n. Thesis.
disservice n. An ill turn.
dissever v. To divide.
dissimilar adj. Different.
dissipate v. To disperse or disappear.
dissipation n. The state of being dispersed or scattered.
dissolute adj. Lewd.
dissolution n. A breaking up of a union of persons.
dissolve v. To liquefy or soften, as by heat or moisture.
dissonance n. Discord.
dissonant adj. Harsh or disagreeable in sound.
dissuade v. To change the purpose or alter the plans of by persuasion, counsel, or pleading.
dissuasion n. The act of changing the purpose of or altering the plans of through persuasion, or pleading.
disyllable n. A word of two syllables.
distemper n. A disease or malady.
distend v. To stretch out or expand in every direction.
distensible adj. Capable of being stretched out or expanded in every direction.
distention n. Expansion.
distill v. To extract or produce by vaporization and condensation.
distillation n. Separation of the more volatile parts of a substance from those less volatile.
distiller n. One occupied in the business of distilling alcoholic liquors.
distinction n. A note or designation of honor, officially recognizing superiority or success in studies.
distort v. To twist into an unnatural or irregular form.
distrain v. To subject a person to distress.
distrainor n. One who subjects a person to distress.
distraught adj. Bewildered.
distrust n. Lack of confidence in the power, wisdom, or good intent of any person.
disunion n. Separation of relations or interests.
diurnal adj. Daily.
divagation n. Digression.
divergent adj. Tending in different directions.
diverse adj. Capable of various forms.
diversion n. Pastime.
diversity n. Dissimilitude.
divert v. To turn from the accustomed course or a line of action already established.
divertible adj. Able to be turned from the accustomed course or a line of action already established.
divest v. To strip, specifically of clothes, ornaments, or accouterments or disinvestment.
divination n. The pretended forecast of future events or discovery of what is lost or hidden.
divinity n. The quality or character of being godlike.
divisible adj. Capable of being separated into parts.
divisor n. That by which a number or quantity is divided.
divulge v. To tell or make known, as something previously private or secret.
divulgence n. A divulging.
docile adj. Easy to manage.
docket n. The registry of judgments of a court.
doe n. The female of the deer.
dogma n. A statement of religious faith or duty formulated by a body claiming authority.
dogmatic adj. Making statements without argument or evidence.
dogmatize v. To make positive assertions without supporting them by argument or evidence.
doleful adj. Melancholy.
dolesome adj. Melancholy.
dolor n. Lamentation.
dolorous adj. Expressing or causing sorrow or pain.
domain n. A sphere or field of action or interest.
domesticity n. Life in or fondness for one's home and family.
domicile n. The place where one lives.
dominance n. Ascendancy.
dominant adj. Conspicuously prominent.
dominate v. To influence controllingly.
domination n. Control by the exercise of power or constituted authority.
domineer v. To rule with insolence or unnecessary annoyance.
donate v. To bestow as a gift, especially for a worthy cause.
donator n. One who makes a donation or present.
donee n. A person to whom a donation is made.
donor n. One who makes a donation or present.
dormant adj. Being in a state of or resembling sleep.
doublet n. One of a pair of like things.
doubly adv. In twofold degree or extent.
dowry n. The property which a wife brings to her husband in marriage.
drachma n. A modern and an ancient Greek coin.
dragnet n. A net to be drawn along the bottom of the water.
dragoon n. In the British army, a cavalryman.
drainage n. The means of draining collectively, as a system of conduits, trenches, pipes, etc.
dramatist n. One who writes plays.
dramatize v. To relate or represent in a dramatic or theatrical manner.
drastic adj. Acting vigorously.
drought n. Dry weather, especially when so long continued as to cause vegetation to wither.
drowsy adj. Heavy with sleepiness.
drudgery n. Hard and constant work in any menial or dull occupation.
dubious adj. Doubtful.
duckling n. A young duck.
ductile adj. Capable of being drawn out, as into wire or a thread.
duet n. A composition for two voices or instruments.
dun v. To make a demand or repeated demands on for payment.
duplex adj. Having two parts.
duplicity n. Double-dealing.
durance n. Confinement.
duration n. The period of time during which anything lasts.
duteous adj. Showing submission to natural superiors.
dutiable adj. Subject to a duty, especially a customs duty.
dutiful adj. Obedient.
dwindle v. To diminish or become less.
dyne n. The force which, applied to a mass of one gram for 1 second, would give it a velocity of 1 cm/s.
earnest adj. Ardent in spirit and speech.
earthenware n. Anything made of clay and baked in a kiln or dried in the sun.
eatable adj. Edible.
ebullient adj. Showing enthusiasm or exhilaration of feeling.
eccentric adj. Peculiar.
eccentricity n. Idiosyncrasy.
eclipse n. The obstruction of a heavenly body by its entering into the shadow of another body.
economize v. To spend sparingly.
ecstasy n. Rapturous excitement or exaltation.
ecstatic adj. Enraptured.
edible adj. Suitable to be eaten.
edict n. That which is uttered or proclaimed by authority as a rule of action.
edify v. To build up, or strengthen, especially in morals or religion.
editorial n. An article in a periodical written by the editor and published as an official argument.
educe v. To draw out.
efface v. To obliterate.
effect n. A consequence.
effective adj. Fit for a destined purpose.
effectual adj. Efficient.
effeminacy n. Womanishness.
effeminate adj. Having womanish traits or qualities.
effervesce v. To bubble up.
effervescent adj. Giving off bubbles of gas.
effete adj. Exhausted, as having performed its functions.
efficacious adj. Effective.
efficacy n. The power to produce an intended effect as shown in the production of it.
efficiency n. The state of possessing adequate skill or knowledge for the performance of a duty.
efficient adj. Having and exercising the power to produce effects or results.
efflorescence n. The state of being flowery, or a flowery appearance.
efflorescent adj. Opening in flower.
effluvium n. A noxious or ill-smelling exhalation from decaying or putrefying matter.
effrontery n. Unblushing impudence.
effulgence n. Splendor.
effuse v. To pour forth.
effusion n. an outpouring.
egoism n. The theory that places man's chief good in the completeness of self.
egoist n. One who advocates or practices egoism.
egotism n. Self-conceit.
egotist n. One given to self-mention or who is constantly telling of his own views and experiences.
egregious adj. Extreme.
egress n. Any place of exit.
eject v. To expel.
elapse v. To quietly terminate: said of time.
elasticity n. That property of matter by which a body tends to return to a former shape after being changed.
electrolysis n. The process of decomposing a chemical compound by the passage of an electric current.
electrotype n. A metallic copy of any surface, as a coin.
elegy n. A lyric poem lamenting the dead.
element n. A component or essential part.
elicit v. To educe or extract gradually or without violence.
eligible adj. Qualified for selection.
eliminate v. To separate and cast aside.
Elizabethan adj. Relating to Elizabeth, queen of England, or to her era.
elocution n. The art of correct intonation, inflection, and gesture in public speaking or reading.
eloquent adj. Having the ability to express emotion or feeling in lofty and impassioned speech.
elucidate v. To bring out more clearly the facts concerning.
elude v. To evade the search or pursuit of by dexterity or artifice.
elusion n. Evasion.
emaciate v. To waste away in flesh.
emanate v. To flow forth or proceed, as from some source.
emancipate v. To release from bondage.
embargo n. Authoritative stoppage of foreign commerce or of any special trade.
embark v. To make a beginning in some occupation or scheme.
embarrass v. To render flustered or agitated.
embellish v. To make beautiful or elegant by adding attractive or ornamental features.
embezzle v. To misappropriate secretly.
emblazon v. To set forth publicly or in glowing terms.
emblem n. A symbol.
embody v. To express, formulate, or exemplify in a concrete, compact or visible form.
embolden v. To give courage to.
embolism n. An obstruction or plugging up of an artery or other blood-vessel.
embroil v. To involve in dissension or strife.
emerge v. To come into view or into existence.
emergence n. A coming into view.
emergent adj. Coming into view.
emeritus adj. Retired from active service but retained to an honorary position.
emigrant n. One who moves from one place to settle in another.
emigrate v. To go from one country, state, or region for the purpose of settling or residing in another.
eminence n. An elevated position with respect to rank, place, character, condition, etc.
eminent adj. High in station, merit, or esteem.
emit v. To send or give out.
emphasis n. Any special impressiveness added to an utterance or act, or stress laid upon some word.
emphasize v. To articulate or enunciate with special impressiveness upon a word, or a group of words.
emphatic adj. Spoken with any special impressiveness laid upon an act, word, or set of words.
employee n. One who works for wages or a salary.
employer n. One who uses or engages the services of other persons for pay.
emporium n. A bazaar or shop.
empower v. To delegate authority to.
emulate v. To imitate with intent to equal or surpass.
enact v. To make into law, as by legislative act.
enamor v. To inspire with ardent love.
encamp v. To pitch tents for a resting-place.
encomium n. A formal or discriminating expression of praise.
encompass v. To encircle.
encore n. The call for a repetition, as of some part of a play or performance.
encourage v. To inspire with courage, hope, or strength of mind.
encroach v. To invade partially or insidiously and appropriate the possessions of another.
encumber v. To impede with obstacles.
encyclical adj. Intended for general circulation.
encyclopedia n. A work containing information on subjects, or exhaustive of one subject.
endanger v. To expose to peril.
endear v. To cause to be loved.
endemic adj. Peculiar to some specified country or people.
endue v. To endow with some quality, gift, or grace, usually spiritual.
endurable adj. Tolerable.
endurance n. The ability to suffer pain, distress, hardship, or stress of any kind without succumbing.
energetic adj. Working vigorously.
enervate v. To render ineffective or inoperative.
enfeeble v. To debilitate.
enfranchise v. To endow with a privilege, especially with the right to vote.
engender v. To produce.
engrave v. To cut or carve in or upon some surface.
engross v. To occupy completely.
enhance v. To intensify.
enigma n. A riddle.
enjoin v. To command.
enkindle v. To set on fire.
enlighten v. To cause to see clearly.
enlist v. To enter voluntarily the military service by formal enrollment.
enmity n. Hatred.
ennoble v. To dignify.
enormity n. Immensity.
enormous adj. Gigantic.
enrage v. To infuriate.
enrapture v. To delight extravagantly or intensely.
enshrine v. To keep sacred.
ensnare v. To entrap.
entail v. To involve; necessitate.
entangle v. To involve in difficulties, confusion, or complications.
enthrall v. To bring or hold under any overmastering influence.
enthrone v. To invest with sovereign power.
enthuse v. To yield to or display intense and rapturous feeling.
enthusiastic adj. Full of zeal and fervor.
entirety n. A complete thing.
entomology n. The branch of zoology that treats of insects.
entrails n. pl. The internal parts of an animal.
entreaty n. An earnest request.
entree n. The act of entering.
entrench v. To fortify or protect, as with a trench or ditch and wall.
entwine v. To interweave.
enumerate v. To name one by one.
epic n. A poem celebrating in formal verse the mythical achievements of great personages, heroes, etc.
epicure n. One who cultivates a delicate taste for eating and drinking.
Epicurean adj. Indulging, ministering, or pertaining to daintiness of appetite.
epicycle n. A circle that rolls upon the external or internal circumference of another circle.
epicycloid n. A curve traced by a point on the circumference of a circle which rolls upon another circle.
epidemic n. Wide-spread occurrence of a disease in a certain region.
epidermis n. The outer skin.
epigram n. A pithy phrasing of a shrewd observation.
epilogue n. The close of a narrative or dramatic poem.
epiphany n. Any appearance or bodily manifestation of a deity.
episode n. An incident or story in a literary work, separable from yet growing out of it.
epitaph n. An inscription on a tomb or monument in honor or in memory of the dead.
epithet n. Word used adjectivally to describe some quality or attribute of is objects, as in "Father Aeneas".
epitome n. A simplified representation.
epizootic adj. Prevailing among animals.
epoch n. A interval of time, memorable for extraordinary events.
epode n. A species of lyric poems.
equalize v. To render uniform.
equanimity n. Evenness of mind or temper.
equestrian adj. Pertaining to horses or horsemanship.
equilibrium n. A state of balance.
equitable adj. Characterized by fairness.
equity n. Fairness or impartiality.
equivalent adj. Equal in value, force, meaning, or the like.
equivocal adj. Ambiguous.
equivocate v. To use words of double meaning.
eradicate v. To destroy thoroughly.
errant adj. Roving or wandering, as in search of adventure or opportunity for gallant deeds.
erratic adj. Irregular.
erroneous adj. Incorrect.
erudite adj. Very-learned.
erudition n. Extensive knowledge of literature, history, language, etc.
eschew v. To keep clear of.
espy v. To keep close watch.
esquire n. A title of dignity, office, or courtesy.
essence n. That which makes a thing to be what it is.
esthetic adj. Pertaining to beauty, taste, or the fine arts.
estimable adj. Worthy of respect.
estrange v. To alienate.
estuary n. A wide lower part of a tidal river.
et cetera Latin. And so forth.
eugenic adj. Relating to the development and improvement of race.
eulogize v. To speak or write a laudation of a person's life or character.
eulogy n. A spoken or written laudation of a person's life or character.
euphemism n. A figure of speech by which a phrase less offensive is substituted.
euphonious adj. Characterized by agreeableness of sound.
euphony n. Agreeableness of sound.
eureka Greek. I have found it.
evade v. To avoid by artifice.
evanesce v. To vanish gradually.
evanescent adj. Fleeting.
evangelical adj. Seeking the conversion of sinners.
evangelist n. A preacher who goes from place to place holding services.
evasion n. Escape.
eventual adj. Ultimate.
evert v. To turn inside out.
evict v. To dispossess pursuant to judicial decree.
evidential adj. Indicative.
evince v. To make manifest or evident.
evoke v. To call or summon forth.
evolution n. Development or growth.
evolve v. To unfold or expand.
exacerbate v. To make more sharp, severe, or virulent.
exaggerate v. To overstate.
exasperate v. To excite great anger in.
excavate v. To remove by digging or scooping out.
exceed v. To go beyond, as in measure, quality, value, action, power, skill, etc.
excel v. To be superior or distinguished.
excellence n. Possession of eminently or unusually good qualities.
excellency n. A title of honor bestowed upon various high officials.
excellent adj. Possessing distinguished merit.
excerpt n. An extract or selection from written or printed matter.
excess n. That which passes the ordinary, proper, or required limit, measure, or experience.
excitable adj. Nervously high-strung.
excitation n. Intensified emotion or action.
exclamation n. An abrupt or emphatic expression of thought or of feeling.
exclude v. To shut out purposely or forcibly.
exclusion n. Non-admission.
excrescence n. Any unnatural addition, outgrowth, or development.
excretion n. The getting rid of waste matter.
excruciate v. To inflict severe pain or agony upon.
excursion n. A journey.
excusable adj. Justifiable.
execrable adj. Abominable.
execration n. An accursed thing.
executor n. A person nominated by the will of another to execute the will.
exegesis n. Biblical exposition or interpretation.
exemplar n. A model, pattern, or original to be copied or imitated.
exemplary adj. Fitted to serve as a model or example worthy of imitation.
exemplify v. To show by example.
exempt adj. Free, clear, or released, as from some liability, or restriction affecting others.
exert v. To make an effort.
exhale v. To breathe forth.
exhaust v. To empty by draining off the contents.
exhaustible adj. Causing or tending to cause exhaustion.
exhaustion n. Deprivation of strength or energy.
exhaustive adj. Thorough and complete in execution.
exhilarate v. To fill with high or cheerful spirits.
exhume v. To dig out of the earth (what has been buried).
exigency n. A critical period or condition.
exigent adj. Urgent.
existence n. Possession or continuance of being.
exit n. A way or passage out.
exodus n. A going forth or departure from a place or country, especially of many people.
exonerate v. To relieve or vindicate from accusation, imputation, or blame.
exorbitance n. Extravagance or enormity.
exorbitant adj. Going beyond usual and proper limits.
exorcise v. To cast or drive out by religious or magical means.
exotic adj. Foreign.
expand v. To increase in range or scope.
expanse n. A continuous area or stretch.
expansion n. Increase of amount, size, scope, or the like.
expatriate v. To drive from one's own country.
expect v. To look forward to as certain or probable.
expectancy n. The act or state of looking forward to as certain or probable.
expectorate v. To cough up and spit forth.
expediency n. Fitness to meet the requirements of a particular case.
expedient adj. Contributing to personal advantage.
expedite v. To hasten the movement or progress of.
expeditious adj. Speedy.
expend v. To spend.
expense n. The laying out or expending or money or other resources, as time or strength.
expiate v. To make satisfaction or amends for.
explicate v. To clear from involvement.
explicit adj. Definite.
explode v. To cause to burst in pieces by force from within.
explosion n. A sudden and violent outbreak.
explosive adj. Pertaining to a sudden and violent outbreak.
exposition n. Formal presentation.
expository adj. Pertaining to a formal presentation.
expostulate v. To discuss.
exposure n. An open situation or position in relation to the sun, elements, or points of the compass.
expressive adj. Full of meaning.
expulsion n. Forcible ejection.
extant adj. Still existing and known.
extemporaneous adj. Done or made without much or any preparation.
extempore adv. Without studied or special preparation.
extensible adj. Capable of being thrust out.
extension n. A reaching or stretching out, as in space, time or scope.
extensive adj. Extended widely in space, time, or scope.
extensor n. A muscle that causes extension.
extenuate v. To diminish the gravity or importance of.
exterior n. That which is outside.
external n. Anything relating or belonging to the outside.
extinct adj. Being no longer in existence.
extinguish v. To render extinct.
extol v. To praise in the highest terms.
extort v. To obtain by violence, threats, compulsion, or the subjection of another to some necessity.
extortion n. The practice of obtaining by violence or compulsion.
extradite v. To surrender the custody of.
extradition n. The surrender by a government of a person accused of crime to the justice of another government.
extrajudicial adj. Happening out of court.
extraneous adj. Having no essential relation to a subject.
extraordinary adj. Unusual.
extravagance n. Undue expenditure of money.
extravagant adj. Needlessly free or lavish in expenditure.
extremist n. One who supports extreme measures or holds extreme views.
extremity n. The utmost point, side, or border, or that farthest removed from a mean position.
extricate v. Disentangle.
extrude v. To drive out or away.
exuberance n. Rich supply.
exuberant adj. Marked by great plentifulness.
fabricate v. To invent fancifully or falsely.
fabulous adj. Incredible.
facet n. One of the small triangular plane surfaces of a diamond or other gem.
facetious adj. Amusing.
facial adj. Pertaining to the face.
facile adj. Not difficult to do.
facilitate v. To make more easy.
facility n. Ease.
facsimile n. An exact copy or reproduction.
faction n. A number of persons combined for a common purpose.
factious adj. Turbulent.
fallacious adj. Illogical.
fallacy n. Any unsound or delusive mode of reasoning, or anything based on such reasoning.
fallible adj. Capable of erring.
fallow n. Land broken up and left to become mellow or to rest.
famish v. To suffer extremity of hunger or thirst.
fanatic n. A religious zealot.
fancier n. One having a taste for or interest in special objects.
fanciless adj. Unimaginative.
fastidious adj. Hard to please.
fathom n. A measure of length, 6 feet.
fatuous adj. Idiotic
faulty adj. Imperfect.
faun n. One of a class of deities of the woods and herds represented as half human, with goats feet.
fawn n. A young deer.
fealty n. Loyalty.
feasible adj. That may be done, performed, or effected; practicable.
federate v. To league together.
feint n. Any sham, pretense, or deceptive movement.
felicitate v. To wish joy or happiness to, especially in view of a coming event.
felicity n. A state of well-founded happiness.
felon n. A criminal or depraved person.
felonious adj. Showing criminal or evil purpose.
felony n. One of the highest class of offenses, and punishable with death or imprisonment.
feminine adj. Characteristic of woman or womankind.
fernery n. A place in which ferns are grown.
ferocious adj. Of a wild, fierce, and savage nature.
ferocity n. Savageness.
fervent adj. Ardent in feeling.
fervid adj. Intense.
fervor n. Ardor or intensity of feeling.
festal adj. Joyous.
festive adj. Merry.
fete n. A festival or feast.
fetus n. The young in the womb or in the egg.
feudal adj. Pertaining to the relation of lord and vassal.
feudalism n. The feudal system.
fez n. A brimless felt cap in the shape of a truncated cone, usually red with a black tassel.
fiasco n. A complete or humiliating failure.
fickle adj. Unduly changeable in feeling, judgment, or purpose.
fictitious adj. Created or formed by the imagination.
fidelity n. Loyalty.
fiducial adj. Indicative of faith or trust.
fief n. A landed estate held under feudal tenure.
filibuster n. One who attempts to obstruct legislation.
finale n. Concluding performance.
finality n. The state or quality of being final or complete.
finally adv. At last.
financial adj. Monetary.
financier n. One skilled in or occupied with financial affairs or operations.
finery n. That which is used to decorate the person or dress.
finesse n. Subtle contrivance used to gain a point.
finite adj. Limited.
fiscal adj. Pertaining to the treasury or public finances of a government.
fishmonger n. One who sells fish.
fissure n. A crack or crack-like depression.
fitful adj. Spasmodic.
fixture n. One who or that which is expected to remain permanently in its position.
flag-officer n. The captain of a flag-ship.
flagrant adj. Openly scandalous.
flamboyant adj. Characterized by extravagance and in general by want of good taste.
flatulence n. Accumulation of gas in the stomach and bowels.
flection n. The act of bending.
fledgling n. A young bird.
flexible adj. Pliable.
flimsy adj. Thin and weak.
flippant adj. Having a light, pert, trifling disposition.
floe n. A collection of tabular masses of floating polar ice.
flora n. The aggregate of plants growing without cultivation in a district.
floral adj. Pertaining to flowers.
florid adj. Flushed with red.
florist n. A dealer in flowers.
fluctuate v. To pass backward and forward irregularly from one state or degree to another.
fluctuation n. Frequent irregular change back and forth from one state or degree to another.
flue n. A smoke-duct in a chimney.
fluent adj. Having a ready or easy flow of words or ideas.
fluential adj. Pertaining to streams.
flux n. A state of constant movement, change, or renewal.
foggy adj. Obscure.
foible n. A personal weakness or failing.
foist v. To palm off.
foliage n. Any growth of leaves.
folio n. A sheet of paper folded once, or of a size adapted to folding once.
folk-lore n. The traditions, beliefs, and customs of the common people.
fondle v. To handle tenderly and lovingly.
foolery n. Folly.
foot-note n. A note of explanation or comment at the foot of a page or column.
foppery n. Dandyism.
foppish adj. Characteristic of one who is unduly devoted to dress and the niceties of manners.
forbearance n. Patient endurance or toleration of offenses.
forby adv. Besides.
forcible adj. Violent.
forecourt n. A court opening directly from the street.
forejudge v. To judge of before hearing evidence.
forepeak n. The extreme forward part of a ship's hold, under the lowest deck.
foreshore n. That part of a shore uncovered at low tide.
forebode v. To be an omen or warning sign of, especially of evil.
forecast v. To predict.
forecastle n. That part of the upper deck of a ship forward of the after fore-shrouds.
foreclose v. To bar by judicial proceedings the equitable right of a mortgagor to redeem property.
forefather n. An ancestor.
forego v. To deny oneself the pleasure or profit of.
foreground n. That part of a landscape or picture situated or represented as nearest the spectator.
forehead n. The upper part of the face, between the eyes and the hair.
foreign adj. Belonging to, situated in, or derived from another country.
foreigner n. A citizen of a foreign country.
foreknowledge n. Prescience.
foreman n. The head man.
foreordain v. To predetermine.
foreordination n. Predestination.
forerun v. To go before as introducing or ushering in.
foresail n. A square sail.
foresee v. To discern beforehand.
foresight n. Provision against harm or need.
foretell v. To predict.
forethought n. Premeditation.
forfeit v. To lose possession of through failure to fulfill some obligation.
forfend v. To ward off.
forgery n. Counterfeiting.
forgo v. To deny oneself.
formation n. Relative disposition of parts.
formidable adj. Difficult to accomplish.
formula n. Fixed rule or set form.
forswear v. To renounce upon oath.
forte n. A strong point.
forth adv. Into notice or view.
forthright adv. With directness.
fortify v. To provide with defensive works.
fortitude n. Patient courage.
foursome adj. Consisting of four.
fracture n. A break.
fragile adj. Easily broken.
frailty n. Liability to be broken or destroyed.
fragile adj. Capable of being broken.
frankincense n. A gum or resin which on burning yields aromatic fumes.
frantic adj. Frenzied.
fraternal adj. Brotherly.
fraudulence n. Deceitfulness.
fraudulent adj. Counterfeit.
fray v. To fret at the edge so as to loosen or break the threads.
freemason n. A member of an ancient secret fraternity originally confined to skilled artisans.
freethinker n. One who rejects authority or inspiration in religion.
free trade n. Commerce unrestricted by tariff or customs.
frequency n. The comparative number of any kind of occurrences within a given time or space.
fresco n. The art of painting on a surface of plaster, particularly on walls and ceilings.
freshness n. The state, quality, or degree of being fresh.
fretful adj. Disposed to peevishness.
frightful adj. Apt to induce terror or alarm.
frigid adj. Lacking warmth.
frigidarium n. A room kept at a low temperature for preserving fruits, meat, etc.
frivolity n. A trifling act, thought, saying, or practice.
frivolous adj. Trivial.
frizz v. To give a crinkled, fluffy appearance to.
frizzle v. To cause to crinkle or curl, as the hair.
frolicsome adj. Prankish.
frontier n. The part of a nation's territory that abuts upon another country.
frowzy adj. Slovenly in appearance.
frugal adj. Economical.
fruition n. Fulfillment.
fugacious adj. Fleeting.
fulcrum n. The support on or against which a lever rests, or the point about which it turns.
fulminate v. To cause to explode.
fulsome adj. Offensive from excess of praise or commendation.
fumigate v. To subject to the action of smoke or fumes, especially for disinfection.
functionary n. An official.
fundamental adj. Basal.
fungible adj. That may be measured, counted, or weighed.
fungous adj. Spongy.
fungus n. A plant destitute of chlorophyll, as a mushroom.
furbish v. To restore brightness or beauty to.
furlong n. A measure, one-eighth of a mile.
furlough n. A temporary absence of a soldier or sailor by permission of the commanding officer.
furrier n. A dealer in or maker of fur goods.
further adj. More distant or advanced.
furtherance n. Advancement.
furtive adj. Stealthy or sly, like the actions of a thief.
fuse v. To unite or blend as by melting together.
fusible adj. Capable of being melted by heat.
futile adj. Of no avail or effect.
futurist n. A person of expectant temperament.
gauge n. An instrument for measuring.
gaiety n. Festivity.
gaily adv. Merrily.
gait n. Carriage of the body in going.
gallant adj. Possessing a brave or chivalrous spirit.
galore adj. Abundant.
galvanic adj. Pertaining or relating to electricity produced by chemical action.
galvanism n. Current electricity, especially that arising from chemical action.
galvanize v. To imbue with life or animation.
gamble v. To risk money or other possession on an event, chance, or contingency.
gambol n. Playful leaping or frisking.
gamester n. A gambler.
gamut n. The whole range or sequence.
garnish v. In cookery, to surround with additions for embellishment.
garrison n. The military force stationed in a fort, town, or other place for its defense.
garrote v. To execute by strangling.
garrulous adj. Given to constant trivial talking.
gaseous adj. Light and unsubstantial.
gastric adj. Of, pertaining to, or near the stomach.
gastritis n. Inflammation of the stomach.
gastronomy n. The art of preparing and serving appetizing food.
gendarme n. In continental Europe, particularly in France, a uniformed and armed police officer.
genealogy n. A list, in the order of succession, of ancestors and their descendants.
genealogist n. A tracer of pedigrees.
generality n. The principal portion.
generalize v. To draw general inferences.
generally adv. Ordinarily.
generate v. To produce or cause to be.
generic adj. Noting a genus or kind; opposed to specific.
generosity n. A disposition to give liberally or to bestow favors heartily.
genesis n. Creation.
geniality n. Warmth and kindliness of disposition.
genital adj. Of or pertaining to the animal reproductive organs.
genitive adj. Indicating source, origin, possession, or the like.
genteel adj. Well-bred or refined.
gentile adj. Belonging to a people not Jewish.
geology n. The department of natural science that treats of the constitution and structure of the earth.
germane adj. Relevant.
germinate v. To begin to develop into an embryo or higher form.
gestation n. Pregnancy.
gesticulate v. To make gestures or motions, as in speaking, or in place of speech.
gesture n. A movement or action of the hands or face, expressive of some idea or emotion.
ghastly adj. Hideous.
gibe v. To utter taunts or reproaches.
giddy adj. Affected with a whirling or swimming sensation in the head.
gigantic adj. Tremendous.
giver n. One who gives, in any sense.
glacial adj. Icy, or icily cold.
glacier n. A field or stream of ice.
gladden v. To make joyous.
glazier n. One who cuts and fits panes of glass, as for windows.
glimmer n. A faint, wavering, unsteady light.
glimpse n. A momentary look.
globose adj. Spherical.
globular adj. Spherical.
glorious adj. Of excellence and splendor.
glutinous adj. Sticky.
gluttonous adj. Given to excess in eating.
gnash v. To grind or strike the teeth together, as from rage.
Gordian knot n. Any difficulty the only issue out of which is by bold or unusual manners.
gourmand n. A connoisseur in the delicacies of the table.
gosling n. A young goose.
gossamer adj. Flimsy.
gourd n. A melon, pumpkin, squash, or some similar fruit having a hard rind.
graceless adj. Ungracious.
gradation n. A step, degree, rank, or relative position in an order or series.
gradient adj. Moving or advancing by steps.
granary n. A storehouse for grain after it is thrashed or husked.
grandeur n. The quality of being grand or admirably great.
grandiloquent adj. Speaking in or characterized by a pompous or bombastic style.
grandiose adj. Having an imposing style or effect.
grantee n. The person to whom property is transferred by deed.
grantor n. The maker of a deed.
granular adj. Composed of small grains or particles.
granulate v. To form into grains or small particles.
granule n. A small grain or particle.
grapple v. To take hold of.
gratification n. Satisfaction.
gratify v. To please, as by satisfying a physical or mental desire or need.
gratuitous adj. Voluntarily.
gratuity n. That which is given without demand or claim. Tip.
gravity n. Seriousness.
gregarious adj. Not habitually solitary or living alone.
grenadier n. A member of a regiment composed of men of great stature.
grief n. Sorrow.
grievance n. That which oppresses, injures, or causes grief and at the same time a sense of wrong.
grievous adj. Creating affliction.
grimace n. A distortion of the features, occasioned by some feeling of pain, disgust, etc.
grindstone n. A flat circular stone, used for sharpening tools.
grisly adj. Fear-inspiring.
grotesque adj. Incongruously composed or ill-proportioned.
grotto n. A small cavern.
ground n. A pavement or floor or any supporting surface on which one may walk.
guess n. Surmise.
guile n. Duplicity.
guileless adj. Frank.
guinea n. An English monetary unit.
guise n. The external appearance as produced by garb or costume.
gullible adj. Credulous.
gumption n. Common sense.
gusto n. Keen enjoyment.
guy n. Stay-rope.
guzzle v. To swallow greedily or hastily; gulp.
gynecocracy n. Female supremacy.
gynecology n. The science that treats of the functions and diseases peculiar to women.
gyrate v. To revolve.
gyroscope n. An instrument for illustrating the laws of rotation.
habitable adj. Fit to be dwelt in.
habitant n. Dweller.
habitual adj. According to usual practice.
habitude n. Customary relation or association.
hackney v. To make stale or trite by repetition.
haggard adj. Worn and gaunt in appearance.
halcyon adj. Calm.
hale adj. Of sound and vigorous health.
handwriting n. Penmanship.
hanger-on n. A parasite.
happy-go-lucky adj. Improvident.
harangue n. A tirade.
harass v. To trouble with importunities, cares, or annoyances.
harbinger n. One who or that which foreruns and announces the coming of any person or thing.
hard-hearted adj. Lacking pity or sympathy.
hardihood n. Foolish daring.
harmonious adj. Concordant in sound.
havoc n. Devastation.
hawthorn n. A thorny shrub much used in England for hedges.
hazard n. Risk.
head first adv. Precipitately, as in diving.
head foremost adv. Precipitately, as in diving.
heartrending adj. Very depressing.
heathenish adj. Irreligious.
heedless adj. Thoughtless.
heifer n. A young cow.
heinous adj. Odiously sinful.
hemorrhage n. Discharge of blood from a ruptured or wounded blood-vessel.
hemorrhoids n. pl. Tumors composed of enlarged and thickened blood-vessels, at the lower end of the rectum.
henchman n. A servile assistant and subordinate.
henpeck v. To worry or harass by ill temper and petty annoyances.
heptagon n. A figure having seven sides and seven angles.
heptarchy n. A group of seven governments.
herbaceous adj. Having the character of a herb.
herbarium n. A collection of dried plants scientifically arranged for study.
herbivorous adj. Feeding on herbs or other vegetable matter, as animals.
hereditary adj. Passing naturally from parent to child.
heredity n. Transmission of physical or mental qualities, diseases, etc., from parent to offspring.
heresy n. An opinion or doctrine subversive of settled beliefs or accepted principles.
heretic n. One who holds opinions contrary to the recognized standards or tenets of any philosophy.
heritage n. Birthright.
hernia n. Protrusion of any internal organ in whole or in part from its normal position.
hesitancy n. A pausing to consider.
hesitant adj. Vacillating.
hesitation n. Vacillation.
heterodox adj. At variance with any commonly accepted doctrine or opinion.
heterogeneity n. Unlikeness of constituent parts.
heterogeneous adj. Consisting of dissimilar elements or ingredients of different kinds.
heteromorphic adj. Deviating from the normal form or standard type.
hexangular adj. Having six angles.
hexapod adj. Having six feet.
hexagon n. A figure with six angles.
hiatus n. A break or vacancy where something necessary to supply the connection is wanting.
hibernal adj. Pertaining to winter.
Hibernian adj. Pertaining to Ireland, or its people.
hideous adj. Appalling.
hilarious adj. Boisterously merry.
hillock n. A small hill or mound.
hinder v. To obstruct.
hindmost adj. Farthest from the front.
hindrance n. An obstacle.
hirsute adj. Having a hairy covering.
hoard v. To gather and store away for the sake of accumulation.
hoarse adj. Having the voice harsh or rough, as from a cold or fatigue.
homage n. Reverential regard or worship.
homogeneity n. Congruity of the members or elements or parts.
homogeneous adj. Made up of similar parts or elements.
homologous adj. Identical in nature, make-up, or relation.
homonym n. A word agreeing in sound with but different in meaning from another.
homophone n. A word agreeing in sound with but different in meaning from another.
honorarium n. A token fee or payment to a professional man for services.
hoodwink v. To deceive.
horde n. A gathered multitude of human beings.
hosiery n. A stocking.
hospitable adj. Disposed to treat strangers or guests with generous kindness.
hospitality n. The practice of receiving and entertaining strangers and guests with kindness.
hostility n. Enmity.
huckster n. One who retails small wares.
humane adj. Compassionate.
humanitarian n. A philanthropist.
humanize v. To make gentle or refined.
humbug n. Anything intended or calculated to deceive or mislead.
humiliate v. To put to shame.
hussar n. A light-horse trooper armed with saber and carbine.
hustle v. To move with haste and promptness.
hybrid adj. Cross-bred.
hydra n. The seven- or nine-headed water-serpent slain by Hercules.
hydraulic adj. Involving the moving of water, of the force exerted by water in motion.
hydrodynamics n. The branch of mechanics that treats of the dynamics of fluids.
hydroelectric adj. Pertaining to electricity developed water or steam.
hydromechanics n. The mechanics of fluids.
hydrometer n. An instrument for determining the density of solids and liquids by flotation.
hydrostatics n. The branch of science that treats of the pressure and equilibrium of fluids.
hydrous adj. Watery.
hygiene n. The branch of medical science that relates to improving health.
hypercritical adj. Faultfinding.
hypnosis n. An artificial trance-sleep.
hypnotic adj. Tending to produce sleep.
hypnotism n. An artificially induced somnambulistic state in which the mind readily acts on suggestion.
hypnotize v. To produce a somnambulistic state in which the mind readily acts on suggestions.
hypocrisy n. Extreme insincerity.
hypocrite n. One who makes false professions of his views or beliefs.
hypodermic adj. Pertaining to the area under the skin.
hypotenuse n. The side of a right-angled triangle opposite the right angle.
hypothesis n. A proposition taken for granted as a premise from which to reach a conclusion.
hysteria n. A nervous affection occurring typically in paroxysms of laughing and crying.
ichthyic adj. Fish-like.
ichthyology n. The branch of zoology that treats of fishes.
ichthyosaurs n. A fossil reptile.
icily adv. Frigidly.
iciness n. The state of being icy.
icon n. An image or likeness.
iconoclast n. An image-breaker.
idealize v. To make to conform to some mental or imaginary standard.
idiom n. A use of words peculiar to a particular language.
idiosyncrasy n. A mental quality or habit peculiar to an individual.
idolize v. To regard with inordinate love or admiration.
ignoble adj. Low in character or purpose.
ignominious adj. Shameful.
Iliad n. A Greek epic poem describing scenes from the siege of Troy.
illegal adj. Not according to law.
illegible adj. Undecipherable.
illegitimate adj. Unlawfully begotten.
illiberal adj. Stingy.
illicit adj. Unlawful.
illimitable adj. Boundless.
illiterate adj. Having little or no book-learning.
ill-natured adj. Surly.
illogical adj. Contrary to the rules of sound thought.
illuminant n. That which may be used to produce light.
illuminate v. To supply with light.
illumine v. To make bright or clear.
illusion n. An unreal image presented to the senses.
illusive adj. Deceptive.
illusory adj. Deceiving or tending to deceive, as by false appearance.
imaginable adj. That can be imagined or conceived in the mind.
imaginary adj. Fancied.
imbibe v. To drink or take in.
imbroglio n. A misunderstanding attended by ill feeling, perplexity, or strife.
imbrue v. To wet or moisten.
imitation n. That which is made as a likeness or copy.
imitator n. One who makes in imitation.
immaculate adj. Without spot or blemish.
immaterial adj. Of no essential consequence.
immature adj. Not full-grown.
immeasurable adj. Indefinitely extensive.
immense adj. Very great in degree, extent, size, or quantity.
immerse v. To plunge or dip entirely under water or other fluid.
immersion n. The act of plunging or dipping entirely under water or another fluid.
immigrant n. A foreigner who enters a country to settle there.
immigrate v. To come into a country or region from a former habitat.
imminence n. Impending evil or danger.
imminent adj. Dangerous and close at hand.
immiscible adj. Separating, as oil and water.
immoral adj. Habitually engaged in licentious or lewd practices.
immortalize v. To cause to last or to be known or remembered throughout a great or indefinite length of time.
immovable adj. Steadfast.
immune adj. Exempt, as from disease.
immutable adj. Unchangeable.
impair v. To cause to become less or worse.
impalpable adj. Imperceptible to the touch.
impartial adj. Unbiased.
impassable adj. That can not be passed through or over.
impassible adj. Not moved or affected by feeling.
impassive adj. Unmoved by or not exhibiting feeling.
impatience n. Unwillingness to brook delays or wait the natural course of things.
impeccable adj. Blameless.
impecunious adj. Having no money.
impede v. To be an obstacle or to place obstacles in the way of.
impel v. To drive or urge forward.
impend v. To be imminent.
imperative adj. Obligatory.
imperceptible adj. Indiscernible.
imperfectible adj. That can not be perfected.
imperil v. To endanger.
imperious adj. Insisting on obedience.
impermissible adj. Not permissible.
impersonal adj. Not relating to a particular person or thing.
impersonate v. To appear or act in the character of.
impersuadable adj. Unyielding.
impertinence n. Rudeness.
imperturbable adj. Calm.
impervious adj. Impenetrable.
impetuosity n. Rashness.
impetuous adj. Impulsive.
impetus n. Any impulse or incentive.
impiety n. Irreverence toward God.
impious adj. Characterized by irreverence or irreligion.
implausible adj. Not plausible.
impliable adj. Capable of being inferred.
implicate v. To show or prove to be involved in or concerned
implicit adj. Implied.
imply v. To signify.
impolitic adj. Inexpedient.
importation n. The act or practice of bringing from one country into another.
importunate adj. Urgent in character, request, or demand.
importune v. To harass with persistent demands or entreaties.
impotent adj. Destitute of or lacking in power, physical, moral, or intellectual.
impoverish v. To make indigent or poor.
impracticable adj. Not feasible.
impregnable adj. That can not be taken by assault.
impregnate v. To make pregnant.
impromptu n. Anything done or said on the impulse of the moment.
improper adj. Not appropriate, suitable, or becoming.
impropriety n. The state or quality of being unfit, unseemly, or inappropriate.
improvident adj. Lacking foresight or thrift.
improvise v. To do anything extemporaneously or offhand.
imprudent adj. Heedless.
impudence n. Insolent disrespect.
impugn v. To assail with arguments, insinuations, or accusations.
impulsion n. Impetus.
impulsive adj. Unpremeditated.
impunity n. Freedom from punishment.
impure adj. Tainted.
impute v. To attribute.
inaccessible adj. Difficult of approach.
inaccurate adj. Not exactly according to the facts.
inactive adj. Inert.
inadequate adj. Insufficient.
inadmissible adj. Not to be approved, considered, or allowed, as testimony.
inadvertent adj. Accidental.
inadvisable adj. Unadvisable.
inane adj. Silly.
inanimate adj. Destitute of animal life.
inapprehensible adj. Not to be understood.
inapt adj. Awkward or slow.
inarticulate adj. Speechless.
inaudible adj. That can not be heard.
inborn adj. Implanted by nature.
inbred adj. Innate.
incandescence n. The state of being white or glowing with heat.
incandescent adj. White or glowing with heat.
incapacitate v. To deprive of power, capacity, competency, or qualification.
incapacity n. Want of power to apprehend, understand, and manage.
incarcerate v. To imprison.
incendiary n. Chemical or person who starts a fire-literally or figuratively.
incentive n. That which moves the mind or inflames the passions.
inception n. The beginning.
inceptive adj. Beginning.
incessant adj. Unceasing.
inchmeal adv. Piecemeal.
inchoate adj. Incipient.
inchoative n. That which begins, or expresses beginning.
incidence n. Casual occurrence.
incident n. A happening in general, especially one of little importance.
incidentally adv. Without intention.
incinerate v. To reduce to ashes.
incipience n. Beginning.
incipient adj. Initial.
incisor n. A front or cutting tooth.
incite v. To rouse to a particular action.
incitement n. That which moves to action, or serves as an incentive or stimulus.
incoercible adj. Incapable of being forced, constrained, or compelled.
incoherence n. Want of connection, or agreement, as of parts or ideas in thought, speech, etc.
incoherent adj. Not logically coordinated, as to parts, elements, or details.
incombustible adj. That can not be burned.
incomparable adj. Matchless.
incompatible adj. Discordant.
incompetence n. General lack of capacity or fitness.
incompetent adj. Not having the abilities desired or necessary for any purpose.
incomplete adj. Lacking some element, part, or adjunct necessary or required.
incomprehensible adj. Not understandable.
incompressible adj. Resisting all attempts to reduce volume by pressure.
inconceivable adj. Incomprehensible.
incongruous adj. Unsuitable for the time, place, or occasion.
inconsequential adj. Valueless.
inconsiderable adj. Small in quantity or importance.
inconsistent adj. Contradictory.
inconstant adj. Changeable.
incontrovertible adj. Indisputable.
inconvenient adj. Interfering with comfort or progress.
indefensible adj. Untenable.
indefinitely adv. In a vague or uncertain way.
indelible adj. That can not be blotted out, effaced, destroyed, or removed.
indescribable adj. That can not be described.
indestructible adj. That can not be destroyed.
indicant adj. That which points out.
indicator n. One who or that which points out.
indict v. To find and declare chargeable with crime.
indigence n. Poverty.
indigenous adj. Native.
indigent adj. Poor.
indigestible adj. Not digestible, or difficult to digest.
indigestion n. Difficulty or failure in the alimentary canal in changing food into absorptive nutriment.
indignant adj. Having such anger and scorn as is aroused by meanness or wickedness.
indignity n. Unmerited contemptuous conduct or treatment.
indiscernible adj. Not perceptible.
indiscreet adj. Lacking wise judgment.
indiscriminate adj. Promiscuous.
indispensable adj. Necessary or requisite for the purpose.
indistinct adj. Vague.
indivertible adj. That can not be turned aside.
indivisible adj. Not separable into parts.
indolence n. Laziness.
indolent adj. Habitually inactive or idle.
indomitable adj. Unconquerable.
induct v. To bring in.
indulgence n. The yielding to inclination, passion, desire, or propensity in oneself or another.
indulgent adj. Yielding to the desires or humor of oneself or those under one's care.
inebriate v. To intoxicate.
inedible adj. Not good for food.
ineffable adj. Unutterable.
inefficient adj. Not accomplishing an intended purpose.
inefficiency n. That which does not accomplish an intended purpose.
ineligible adj. Not suitable to be selected or chosen.
inept adj. Not fit or suitable.
inert adj. Inanimate.
inestimable adj. Above price.
inevitable adj. Unavoidable.
inexcusable adj. Not to be justified.
inexhaustible adj. So large or furnishing so great a supply as not to be emptied, wasted, or spent.
inexorable adj. Unrelenting.
inexpedient adj. Unadvisable.
inexpensive adj. Low-priced.
inexperience n. Lack of or deficiency in experience.
inexplicable adj. Such as can not be made plain.
inexpressible adj. Unutterable.
inextensible adj. Of unchangeable length or area.
infallible adj. Exempt from error of judgment, as in opinion or statement.
infamous adj. Publicly branded or notorious, as for vice, or crime.
infamy n. Total loss or destitution of honor or reputation.
inference n. The derivation of a judgment from any given material of knowledge on the ground of law.
infernal adj. Akin to or befitting hell or its occupants.
infest v. To be present in such numbers as to be a source of annoyance, trouble, or danger.
infidel n. One who denies the existence of God.
infidelity n. Disloyalty.
infinite adj. Measureless.
infinity n. Boundless or immeasurable extension or duration.
infirm adj. Lacking in bodily or mental strength.
infirmary n. A place for the reception or treatment of the sick.
infirmity n. A physical, mental, or moral weakness or flaw.
inflammable adj. Easily set on fire or excited.
inflammation n. A morbid process in some part of the body characterized by heat, swelling, and pain.
inflexible adj. That can not be altered or varied.
influence n. Ability to sway the will of another.
influential adj. Having the power to sway the will of another.
influx n. Infusion.
infrequence n. Rareness.
infrequent adj. Uncommon.
infringe v. To trespass upon.
infuse v. To instill, introduce, or inculcate, as principles or qualities.
infusion n. The act of imbuing, or pouring in.
ingenious adj. Evincing skill, originality, or cleverness, as in contrivance or arrangement.
ingenuity n. Cleverness in contriving, combining, or originating.
ingenuous adj. Candid, frank, or open in character or quality.
inglorious adj. Shameful.
ingraft v. To set or implant deeply and firmly.
ingratiate v. To win confidence or good graces for oneself.
ingratitude n. Insensibility to kindness.
ingredient n. Component.
inherence n. The state of being permanently existing in something.
inherent adj. Intrinsic.
inhibit v. To hold back or in.
inhospitable adj. Not disposed to entertain strangers gratuitously.
inhuman adj. Savage.
inhume v. To place in the earth, as a dead body.
inimical adj. Adverse.
iniquity n. Gross wrong or injustice.
initiate v. To perform the first act or rite.
inject v. To introduce, as a fluid, by injection.
injunction n. Mandate.
inkling n. A hint.
inland adj. Remote from the sea.
inlet n. A small body of water leading into a larger.
inmost adj. Deepest within.
innocuous adj. Harmless.
innovate v. To introduce or strive to introduce new things.
innuendo n. Insinuation.
innumerable adj. Countless.
inoffensive adj. Causing nothing displeasing or disturbing.
inopportune adj. Unsuitable or inconvenient, especially as to time.
inquire v. To ask information about.
inquisition n. A court or tribunal for examination and punishment of heretics.
inquisitive adj. Given to questioning, especially out of curiosity.
inquisitor n. One who makes an investigation.
inroad n. Forcible encroachment or trespass.
insatiable adj. That desires or craves immoderately or unappeasably.
inscribe v. To enter in a book, or on a list, roll, or document, by writing.
inscrutable adj. Impenetrably mysterious or profound.
insecure adj. Not assured of safety.
insensible adj. Imperceptible.
insentient adj. Lacking the power of feeling or perceiving.
inseparable adj. That can not be separated.
insidious adj. Working ill by slow and stealthy means.
insight n. Intellectual discernment.
insignificance n. Lack of import or of importance.
insignificant adj. Without importance, force, or influence.
insinuate v. To imply.
insipid adj. Tasteless.
insistence n. Urgency.
insistent adj. Urgent.
insolence n. Pride or haughtiness exhibited in contemptuous and overbearing treatment of others.
insolent adj. Impudent.
insomnia n. Sleeplessness.
inspector n. An official appointed to examine or oversee any matter of public interest or importance.
instance n. A single occurrence or happening of a given kind.
instant n. A very brief portion of time.
instantaneous adj. Done without perceptible lapse of time.
instigate v. To provoke.
instigator n. One who incites to evil.
instill v. To infuse.
instructive adj. Conveying knowledge.
insufficiency n. Inadequacy.
insufficient adj. Inadequate for some need, purpose, or use.
insular adj. Pertaining to an island.
insulate v. To place in a detached state or situation.
insuperable adj. Invincible.
insuppressible adj. Incapable of being concealed.
insurgence n. Uprising.
insurgent n. One who takes part in forcible opposition to the constituted authorities of a place.
insurrection n. The state of being in active resistance to authority.
intangible adj. Not perceptible to the touch.
integrity n. Uprightness of character and soundness of moral principle.
intellect n. The faculty of perception or thought.
intellectual adj. Characterized by intelligence.
intelligence n. Capacity to know or understand.
intelligible adj. Comprehensible.
intemperance n. Immoderate action or indulgence, as of the appetites.
intension n. The act of stringing or stretching, or state of being strained.
intensive adj. Adding emphasis or force.
intention n. That upon which the mind is set.
interact v. To act reciprocally.
intercede v. To mediate between persons.
intercept v. To interrupt the course of.
intercession n. Entreaty in behalf of others.
intercessor n. A mediator.
interdict n. Authoritative act of prohibition.
interim n. Time between acts or periods.
interlocutor n. One who takes part in a conversation or oral discussion.
interlude n. An action or event considered as coming between others of greater length.
intermediate adj. Being in a middle place or degree or between extremes.
interminable adj. Having no limit or end.
intermission n. A recess.
intermit v. To cause to cease temporarily.
intermittent adj. A temporary discontinuance.
interpolation n. Verbal interference.
interpose v. To come between other things or persons.
interposition n. A coming between.
interpreter n. A person who makes intelligible the speech of a foreigner by oral translation.
interrogate v. To examine formally by questioning.
interrogative adj. Having the nature or form of a question.
interrogatory n. A question or inquiry.
interrupt v. To stop while in progress.
intersect v. To cut through or into so as to divide.
intervale n. A low tract of land between hills, especially along a river.
intervene v. To interfere for some end.
intestacy n. The condition resulting from one's dying not having made a valid will.
intestate adj. Not having made a valid will.
intestine n. That part of the digestive tube below or behind the stomach, extending to the anus.
intimacy n. Close or confidential friendship.
intimidate v. To cause to become frightened.
intolerable adj. Insufferable.
intolerance n. Inability or unwillingness to bear or endure.
intolerant adj. Bigoted.
intoxicant n. Anything that unduly exhilarates or excites.
intoxicate v. To make drunk.
intracellular adj. Occurring or situated within a cell.
intramural adj. Situated within the walls of a city.
intrepid adj. Fearless and bold.
intricacy n. Perplexity.
intricate adj. Difficult to follow or understand.
intrigue n. A plot or scheme, usually complicated and intended to accomplish something by secret ways.
intrinsic adj. Inherent.
introductory adj. Preliminary.
introgression n. Entrance.
intromit v. To insert.
introspect v. To look into.
introspection n. The act of observing and analyzing one's own thoughts and feelings.
introversion n. The act of turning or directing inward, physically or mentally.
introvert v. To turn within.
intrude v. To come in without leave or license.
intrusion n. The act of entering without warrant or invitation; encroachment.
intuition n. Instinctive knowledge or feeling.
inundate v. To fill with an overflowing abundance.
inundation n. Flood.
inure v. To harden or toughen by use, exercise, or exposure.
invalid adj. Having no force, weight, or cogency.
invalid n. One who is disabled by illness or injury.
invalidate v. To render of no force or effect.
invaluable adj. Exceedingly precious.
invariable adj. Unchangeable.
invasion n. Encroachment, as by an act of intrusion or trespass.
invective n. An utterance intended to cast censure, or reproach.
inveigh v. To utter vehement censure or invective.
inventive adj. Quick at contrivance.
inverse adj. Contrary in tendency or direction.
inversion n. Change of order so that the first shall become last and the last first.
invert v. To turn inside out, upside down, or in opposite direction.
investigator n. One who investigates.
investor n. One who invests money.
inveterate adj. Habitual.
invidious adj. Showing or feeling envy.
invigorate v. To animate.
invincible adj. Not to be conquered, subdued, or overcome.
inviolable adj. Incapable of being injured or disturbed.
invoke v. To call on for assistance or protection.
involuntary adj. Unwilling.
involution n. Complication.
involve v. To draw into entanglement, literally or figuratively.
invulnerable adj. That can not be wounded or hurt.
inwardly adv. With no outward manifestation.
iota n. A small or insignificant mark or part.
irascible adj. Prone to anger.
irate adj. Moved to anger.
ire n. Wrath.
iridescence n. A many-colored appearance.
iridescent adj. Exhibiting changing rainbow-colors due to the interference of the light.
irk v. To afflict with pain, vexation, or fatigue.
irksome adj. Wearisome.
irony n. Censure or ridicule under cover of praise or compliment.
irradiance n. Luster.
irradiate v. To render clear and intelligible.
irrational adj. Not possessed of reasoning powers or understanding.
irreducible adj. That can not be lessened.
irrefragable adj. That can not be refuted or disproved.
irrefrangible adj. That can not be broken or violated.
irrelevant adj. Inapplicable.
irreligious adj. Indifferent or opposed to religion.
irreparable adj. That can not be rectified or made amends for.
irrepressible adj. That can not be restrained or kept down.
irresistible adj. That can not be successfully withstood or opposed.
irresponsible adj. Careless of or unable to meet responsibilities.
irreverence n. The quality showing or expressing a deficiency of veneration, especially for sacred things.
irreverent adj. Showing or expressing a deficiency of veneration, especially for sacred things.
irreverential adj. Showing or expressing a deficiency of veneration, especially for sacred things.
irreversible adj. Irrevocable.
irrigant adj. Serving to water lands by artificial means.
irrigate v. To water, as land, by ditches or other artificial means.
irritable adj. Showing impatience or ill temper on little provocation.
irritancy n. The quality of producing vexation.
irritant n. A mechanical, chemical, or pathological agent of inflammation, pain, or tension.
irritate v. To excite ill temper or impatience in.
irruption n. Sudden invasion.
isle n. An island.
islet n. A little island.
isobar n. A line joining points at which the barometric pressure is the same at a specified moment.
isochronous adj. Relating to or denoting equal intervals of time.
isolate v. To separate from others of its kind.
isothermal adj. Having or marking equality of temperature.
itinerant adj. Wandering.
itinerary n. A detailed account or diary of a journey.
itinerate v. To wander from place to place.
jargon n. Confused, unintelligible speech or highly technical speech.
jaundice n. A morbid condition, due to obstructed excretion of bile or characterized by yellowing of the skin.
jeopardize v. To imperil.
Jingo n. One of a party in Great Britain in favor of spirited and demonstrative foreign policy.
jocose adj. Done or made in jest.
jocular adj. Inclined to joke.
joggle n. A sudden irregular shake or a push causing such a shake.
journalize v. To keep a diary.
jovial adj. Merry.
jubilation n. Exultation.
judgment n. The faculty by the exercise of which a deliberate conclusion is reached.
judicature n. Distribution and administration of justice by trial and judgment.
judicial adj. Pertaining to the administration of justice.
judiciary n. That department of government which administers the law relating to civil and criminal justice.
judicious adj. Prudent.
juggle v. To play tricks of sleight of hand.
jugglery n. The art or practice of sleight of hand.
jugular adj. Pertaining to the throat.
juicy adj. Succulent.
junction n. The condition of being joined.
juncture n. An articulation, joint, or seam.
junta n. A council or assembly that deliberates in secret upon the affairs of government.
juridical adj. Assumed by law to exist.
jurisdiction n. Lawful power or right to exercise official authority.
jurisprudence n. The science of rights in accordance with positive law.
juror n. One who serves on a jury or is sworn in for jury duty in a court of justice.
joust v. To engage in a tilt with lances on horseback.
justification n. Vindication.
juvenile adj. Characteristic of youth.
juxtapose v. To place close together.
keepsake n. Anything kept or given to be kept for the sake of the giver.
kerchief n. A square of linen, silk, or other material, used as a covering for the head or neck.
kernel n. A grain or seed.
kiln n. An oven or furnace for baking, burning, or drying industrial products.
kiloliter n. One thousand liters.
kilometer n. A length of 1,000 meters.
kilowatt n. One thousand watts.
kimono n. A loose robe, fastening with a sash, the principal outer garment in Japan.
kind-hearted adj. Having a kind and sympathetic nature.
kingling n. A petty king.
kingship n. Royal state.
kinsfolk n. pl. Relatives.
knavery n. Deceitfulness in dealing.
knead v. To mix and work into a homogeneous mass, especially with the hands.
knickknack n. A small article, more for ornament that use.
knight errant n. One of the wandering knights who in the middle ages went forth in search of adventure.
knighthood n. Chivalry.
laborious adj. Toilsome.
labyrinth n. A maze.
lacerate v. To tear rudely or raggedly.
lackadaisical adj. Listless.
lactation n. The secretion of milk.
lacteal adj. Milky.
lactic adj. Pertaining to milk.
laddie n. A lad.
ladle n. A cup-shaped vessel with a long handle, intended for dipping up and pouring liquids.
laggard adj. Falling behind.
landholder n. Landowner.
landlord n. A man who owns and lets a tenement or tenements.
landmark n. A familiar object in the landscape serving as a guide to an area otherwise easily lost track of.
landscape n. A rural view, especially one of picturesque effect, as seen from a distance or an elevation.
languid adj. Relaxed.
languor n. Lassitude of body or depression.
lapse n. A slight deviation from what is right, proper, or just.
lascivious adj. Lustful.
lassie n. A little lass.
latent adj. Dormant.
latency n. The state of being dormant.
later adv. At a subsequent time.
lateral adj. Directed toward the side.
latish adj. Rather late.
lattice n. Openwork of metal or wood, formed by crossing or interlacing strips or bars.
laud v. To praise in words or song.
laudable adj. Praiseworthy.
laudation n. High praise.
laudatory adj. Pertaining to, expressing, or containing praise.
laundress n. Washerwoman.
laureate adj. Crowned with laurel, as a mark of distinction.
lave v. To wash or bathe.
lawgiver n. A legislator.
lawmaker n. A legislator.
lax adj. Not stringent or energetic.
laxative adj. Having power to open or loosen the bowels.
lea n. A field.
leaflet n. A little leaf or a booklet.
leaven v. To make light by fermentation, as dough.
leeward n. That side or direction toward which the wind blows.
left-handed adj. Using the left hand or arm more dexterously than the right.
legacy n. A bequest.
legalize v. To give the authority of law to.
legging n. A covering for the leg.
legible adj. That may be read with ease.
legionary n. A member of an ancient Roman legion or of the modern French Legion of Honor.
legislate v. To make or enact a law or laws.
legislative adj. That makes or enacts laws.
legislator n. A lawgiver.
legitimacy n. Accordance with law.
legitimate adj. Having the sanction of law or established custom.
leisure n. Spare time.
leniency n. Forbearance.
lenient adj. Not harsh.
leonine adj. Like a lion.
lethargy n. Prolonged sluggishness of body or mind.
levee n. An embankment beside a river or stream or an arm of the sea, to prevent overflow.
lever n. That which exerts, or through which one may exert great power.
leviathan n. Any large animal, as a whale.
levity n. Frivolity.
levy v. To impose and collect by force or threat of force.
lewd adj. Characterized by lust or lasciviousness.
lexicographer n. One who makes dictionaries.
lexicography n. The making of dictionaries.
lexicon n. A dictionary.
liable adj. Justly or legally responsible.
libel n. Defamation.
liberalism n. Opposition to conservatism.
liberate v. To set free or release from bondage.
licentious adj. Wanton.
licit adj. Lawful.
liege adj. Sovereign.
lien n. A legal claim or hold on property, as security for a debt or charge.
lieu n. Stead.
lifelike adj. Realistic.
lifelong adj. Lasting or continuous through life.
lifetime n. The time that life continues.
ligament n. That which binds objects together.
ligature n. Anything that constricts, or serves for binding or tying.
light-hearted adj. Free from care.
ligneous adj. Having the texture of appearance of wood.
likelihood n. A probability.
likely adj. Plausible.
liking n. Fondness.
limitation n. A restriction.
linear adj. Of the nature of a line.
liner n. A vessel belonging to a steamship-line.
lingo n. Language.
lingua n. The tongue.
lingual adj. Pertaining to the use of the tongue in utterance.
linguist n. One who is acquainted with several languages.
linguistics n. The science of languages, or of the origin, history, and significance of words.
liniment n. A liquid preparation for rubbing on the skin in cases of bruises, inflammation, etc.
liquefacient adj. Possessing a liquefying nature or power.
liquefy v. To convert into a liquid or into liquid form.
liqueur n. An alcoholic cordial sweetened and flavored with aromatic substances.
liquidate v. To deliver the amount or value of.
liquor n. Any alcoholic or intoxicating liquid.
listless adj. Inattentive.
literacy n. The state or condition of knowing how to read and write.
literal adj. Following the exact words.
literature n. The written or printed productions of the human mind collectively.
lithe adj. Supple.
lithesome adj. Nimble.
lithograph n. A print made by printing from stone.
lithotype n. In engraving, an etched stone surface for printing.
litigant n. A party to a lawsuit.
litigate v. To cause to become the subject-matter of a suit at law.
litigious adj. Quarrelsome.
littoral adj. Of, pertaining to, or living on a shore.
liturgy n. A ritual.
livelihood n. Means of subsistence.
livid adj. Black-and-blue, as contused flesh.
loam n. A non-coherent mixture of sand and clay.
loath adj. Averse.
loathe v. To abominate.
locative adj. Indicating place, or the place where or wherein an action occurs.
loch n. A lake.
locomotion n. The act or power of moving from one place to another.
lode n. A somewhat continuous unstratified metal- bearing vein.
lodgment n. The act of furnishing with temporary quarters.
logic n. The science of correct thinking.
logical adj. Capable of or characterized by clear reasoning.
logician n. An expert reasoner.
loiterer n. One who consumes time idly.
loneliness n. Solitude.
longevity n. Unusually prolonged life.
loot v. To plunder.
loquacious adj. Talkative.
lordling n. A little lord.
lough n. A lake or loch.
louse n. A small insect parasitic on and sucking the blood of mammals.
lovable adj. Amiable.
low-spirited adj. Despondent.
lowly adv. Rudely.
lucid adj. Mentally sound.
lucrative adj. Highly profitable.
ludicrous adj. Laughable.
luminary n. One of the heavenly bodies as a source of light.
luminescent adj. Showing increase of light.
luminescence n. Showing increase.
luminosity n. The quality of giving or radiating light.
luminous adj. Giving or radiating light.
lunacy n. Mental unsoundness.
lunar adj. Pertaining to the moon.
lunatic n. An insane person.
lune n. The moon.
lurid adj. Ghastly and sensational.
luscious adj. Rich, sweet, and delicious.
lustrous adj. Shining.
luxuriance n. Excessive or superfluous growth or quantity.
luxuriant adj. Abundant or superabundant in growth.
luxuriate v. To live sumptuously.
lying n. Untruthfulness.
lyre n. One of the most ancient of stringed instruments of the harp class.
lyric adj. Fitted for expression in song.
macadamize v. To cover or pave, as a path or roadway, with small broken stone.
machinery n. The parts of a machine or engine, taken collectively.
machinist n. One who makes or repairs machines, or uses metal-working tools.
macrocosm n. The whole of any sphere or department of nature or knowledge to which man is related.
madden v. To inflame with passion.
Madonna n. A painted or sculptured representation of the Virgin, usually with the infant Jesus.
magician n. A sorcerer.
magisterial adj. Having an air of authority.
magistracy n. The office or dignity of a magistrate.
magnanimous adj. Generous in treating or judging others.
magnate n. A person of rank or importance.
magnet n. A body possessing that peculiar form of polarity found in nature in the lodestone.
magnetize v. To make a magnet of, permanently, or temporarily.
magnificence n. The exhibition of greatness of action, character, intellect, wealth, or power.
magnificent adj. Grand or majestic in appearance, quality, or action.
magnitude n. Importance.
maharaja n. A great Hindu prince.
maidenhood n. Virginity.
maintain v. To hold or preserve in any particular state or condition.
maintenance n. That which supports or sustains.
maize n. Indian corn: usually in the United States called simply corn.
makeup n. The arrangements or combination of the parts of which anything is composed.
malady n. Any physical disease or disorder, especially a chronic or deep-seated one.
malaria n. A fever characterized by alternating chills, fever, and sweating.
malcontent n. One who is dissatisfied with the existing state of affairs.
malediction n. The calling down of a curse or curses.
malefactor n. One who injures another.
maleficent adj. Mischievous.
malevolence n. Ill will.
malevolent adj. Wishing evil to others.
malign v. To speak evil of, especially to do so falsely and severely.
malignant adj. Evil in nature or tending to do great harm or mischief.
malleable adj. Pliant.
mallet n. A wooden hammer.
maltreat v. To treat ill, unkindly, roughly, or abusively.
man-trap n. A place or structure dangerous to human life.
mandate n. A command.
mandatory adj. Expressive of positive command, as distinguished from merely directory.
mane n. The long hair growing upon and about the neck of certain animals, as the horse and the lion.
man-eater n. An animal that devours human beings.
maneuver v. To make adroit or artful moves: manage affairs by strategy.
mania n. Insanity.
maniac n. a person raving with madness.
manifesto n. A public declaration, making announcement, explanation or defense of intentions, or motives.
manlike adj. Like a man.
manliness n. The qualities characteristic of a true man, as bravery, resolution, etc.
mannerism n. Constant or excessive adherence to one manner, style, or peculiarity, as of action or conduct.
manor n. The landed estate of a lord or nobleman.
mantel n. The facing, sometimes richly ornamented, about a fireplace, including the usual shelf above it.
mantle n. A cloak.
manufacturer n. A person engaged in manufacturing as a business.
manumission n. Emancipation.
manumit v. To set free from bondage.
marine adj. Of or pertaining to the sea or matters connected with the sea.
maritime adj. Situated on or near the sea.
maroon v. To put ashore and abandon (a person) on a desolate coast or island.
martial adj. Pertaining to war or military operations.
Martian adj. Pertaining to Mars, either the Roman god of war or the planet.
martyrdom n. Submission to death or persecution for the sake of faith or principle.
marvel v. To be astonished and perplexed because of (something).
masonry n. The art or work of constructing, as buildings, walls, etc., with regularly arranged stones.
masquerade n. A social party composed of persons masked and costumed so as to be disguised.
massacre n. The unnecessary and indiscriminate killing of human beings.
massive adj. Of considerable bulk and weight.
masterpiece n. A superior production.
mastery n. The attainment of superior skill.
material n. That of which anything is composed or may be constructed.
materialize v. To take perceptible or substantial form.
maternal adj. Pertaining or peculiar to a mother or to motherhood.
matinee n. An entertainment (especially theatrical) held in the daytime.
matricide n. The killing, especially the murdering, of one's mother.
matrimony n. The union of a man and a woman in marriage.
matrix n. That which contains and gives shape or form to anything.
matter of fact n. Something that has actual and undeniable existence or reality.
maudlin adj. Foolishly and tearfully affectionate.
mausoleum n. A tomb of more than ordinary size or architectural pretensions.
mawkish adj. Sickening or insipid.
maxim n. A principle accepted as true and acted on as a rule or guide.
maze n. A labyrinth.
mead n. A meadow.
meager adj. scanty.
mealy-mouthed adj. Afraid to express facts or opinions plainly.
meander v. To wind and turn while proceeding in a course.
mechanics n. The branch of physics that treats the phenomena caused by the action of forces.
medallion n. A large medal.
meddlesome adj. Interfering.
medial adj. Of or pertaining to the middle.
mediate v. To effect by negotiating as an agent between parties.
medicine n. A substance possessing or reputed to possess curative or remedial properties.
medieval adj. Belonging or relating to or descriptive of the middle ages.
mediocre adj. Ordinary.
meditation n. The turning or revolving of a subject in the mind.
medley n. A composition of different songs or parts of songs arranged to run as a continuous whole.
meliorate v. To make better or improve, as in quality or social or physical condition.
mellifluous adj. Sweetly or smoothly flowing.
melodious adj. Characterized by a sweet succession of sounds.
melodrama n. A drama with a romantic story or plot and sensational situation and incidents.
memento n. A souvenir.
memorable adj. Noteworthy.
menace n. A threat.
menagerie n. A collection of wild animals, especially when kept for exhibition.
mendacious adj. Untrue.
mendicant n. A beggar.
mentality n. Intellectuality.
mentor n. A wise and faithful teacher, guide, and friend.
mercantile adj. Conducted or acting on business principles; commercial.
mercenary adj. Greedy
merciful adj. Disposed to pity and forgive.
merciless adj. Cruel.
meretricious adj. Alluring by false or gaudy show.
mesmerize v. To hypnotize.
messieurs n. pl. Gentlemen.
metal n. An element that forms a base by combining with oxygen, is usually hard, heavy, and lustrous.
metallurgy n. The art or science of extracting a metal from ores, as by smelting.
metamorphosis n. A passing from one form or shape into another.
metaphor n. A figure of speech in which one object is likened to another, by speaking as if the other.
metaphysical adj. Philosophical.
metaphysician n. One skilled in metaphysics.
metaphysics n. The principles of philosophy as applied to explain the methods of any particular science.
mete v. To apportion.
metempsychosis n. Transition of the soul of a human being at death into another body, whether human or beast.
meticulous adj. Over-cautious.
metonymy n. A figure of speech that consists in the naming of a thing by one of its attributes.
metric adj. Relating to measurement.
metronome n. An instrument for indicating and marking exact time in music.
metropolis n. A chief city, either the capital or the largest or most important city of a state.
metropolitan adj. Pertaining to a chief city.
mettle n. Courage.
mettlesome adj. Having courage or spirit.
microcosm n. The world or universe on a small scale.
micrometer n. An instrument for measuring very small angles or dimensions.
microphone n. An apparatus for magnifying faint sounds.
microscope n. An instrument for assisting the eye in the vision of minute objects or features of objects.
microscopic adj. Adapted to or characterized by minute observation.
microscopy n. The art of examing objects with the microscope.
midsummer n. The middle of the summer.
midwife n. A woman who makes a business of assisting at childbirth.
mien n. The external appearance or manner of a person.
migrant adj. Wandering.
migrate v. To remove or pass from one country, region, or habitat to another.
migratory adj. Wandering.
mileage n. A distance in miles.
militant adj. Of a warlike or combative disposition or tendency.
militarism n. A policy of maintaining great standing armies.
militate v. To have weight or influence (in determining a question).
militia n. Those citizens, collectively, who are enrolled and drilled in temporary military organizations.
Milky Way n. The galaxy.
millet n. A grass cultivated for forage and cereal.
mimic v. To imitate the speech or actions of.
miniature adj. Much smaller than reality or that the normal size.
minimize v. To reduce to the smallest possible amount or degree.
minion n. A servile favorite.
ministration n. Any religious ceremonial.
ministry n. A service.
minority n. The smaller in number of two portions into which a number or a group is divided.
minute adj. Exceedingly small in extent or quantity.
minutia n. A small or unimportant particular or detail.
mirage n. An optical effect looking like a sheet of water in the desert.
misadventure n. An unlucky accident.
misanthropic adj. Hating mankind.
misanthropy n. Hatred of mankind.
misapprehend v. To misunderstand.
misbehave v. To behave ill.
misbehavior n. Ill or improper behavior.
mischievous adj. Fond of tricks.
miscount v. To make a mistake in counting.
miscreant n. A villain.
misdeed n. A wrong or improper act.
misdemeanor n. Evil conduct, small crime.
miser n. A person given to saving and hoarding unduly.
mishap n. Misfortune.
misinterpret v. To misunderstand.
mislay v. To misplace.
mismanage v. To manage badly, improperly, or unskillfully.
misnomer n. A name wrongly or mistakenly applied.
misogamy n. Hatred of marriage.
misogyny n. Hatred of women.
misplace v. To put into a wrong place.
misrepresent v. To give a wrong impression.
misrule v. To misgovern.
missal n. The book containing the service for the celebration of mass.
missile n. Any object, especially a weapon, thrown or intended to be thrown.
missive n. A message in writing.
mistrust v. To regard with suspicion or jealousy.
misty adj. Lacking clearness
misunderstand v. To Take in a wrong sense.
misuse v. To maltreat.
mite n. A very small amount, portion, or particle.
miter n. The junction of two bodies at an equally divided angle.
mitigate v. To make milder or more endurable.
mnemonics n. A system of principles and formulas designed to assist the recollection in certain instances.
moat n. A ditch on the outside of a fortress wall.
mobocracy n. Lawless control of public affairs by the mob or populace.
moccasin n. A foot-covering made of soft leather or buckskin.
mockery n. Ridicule.
moderation n. Temperance.
moderator n. The presiding officer of a meeting.
modernity n. The state or character of being modern.
modernize v. To make characteristic of the present or of recent times.
modification n. A change.
modify v. To make somewhat different.
modish adj. Fashionable.
modulate v. To vary in tone, inflection, pitch or other quality of sound.
mollify v. To soothe.
molt v. To cast off, as hair, feathers, etc.
momentary adj. Lasting but a short time.
momentous adj. Very significant.
momentum n. An impetus.
monarchy n. Government by a single, sovereign ruler.
monastery n. A dwelling-place occupied in common by persons under religious vows of seclusion.
monetary adj. Financial.
mongrel n. The progeny resulting from the crossing of different breeds or varieties.
monition n. Friendly counsel given by way of warning and implying caution or reproof.
monitory n. Admonition or warning.
monocracy n. Government by a single person.
monogamy n. The habit of pairing, or having but one mate.
monogram n. A character consisting of two or more letters interwoven into one, usually initials of a name.
monograph n. A treatise discussing a single subject or branch of a subject.
monolith n. Any structure or sculpture in stone formed of a single piece.
monologue n. A story or drama told or performed by one person.
monomania n. The unreasonable pursuit of one idea.
monopoly n. The control of a thing, as a commodity, to enable a person to raise its price.
monosyllable n. A word of one syllable.
monotone n. The sameness or monotony of utterance.
monotonous adj. Unchanging and tedious.
monotony n. A lack of variety.
monsieur n. A French title of respect, equivalent to Mr. and sir.
monstrosity n. Anything unnaturally huge or distorted.
moonbeam n. A ray of moonlight.
morale n. A state of mind with reference to confidence, courage, zeal, and the like.
moralist n. A writer on ethics.
morality n. Virtue.
moralize v. To render virtuous.
moratorium n. An emergency legislation authorizing a government suspend some action temporarily.
morbid adj. Caused by or denoting a diseased or unsound condition of body or mind.
mordacious adj. Biting or giving to biting.
mordant adj. Biting.
moribund adj. On the point of dying.
morose adj. Gloomy.
morphology n. the science of organic forms.
motley adj. Composed of heterogeneous or inharmonious elements.
motto n. An expressive word or pithy sentence enunciating some guiding rule of life, or faith.
mountaineer n. One who travels among or climbs mountains for pleasure or exercise.
mountainous adj. Full of or abounding in mountains.
mouthful n. As much as can be or is usually put into the or exercise.
muddle v. To confuse or becloud, especially with or as with drink.
muffle v. To deaden the sound of, as by wraps.
mulatto n. The offspring of a white person and a black person.
muleteer n. A mule-driver.
multiform adj. Having many shapes, or appearances.
multiplicity n. the condition of being manifold or very various.
mundane adj. Worldly, as opposed to spiritual or celestial.
municipal adj. Of or pertaining to a town or city, or to its corporate or local government.
municipality n. A district enjoying municipal government.
munificence n. A giving characterized by generous motives and extraordinary liberality.
munificent adj. Extraordinarily generous.
muster n. An assemblage or review of troops for parade or inspection, or for numbering off.
mutation n. The act or process of change.
mutilate v. To disfigure.
mutiny n. Rebellion against lawful or constituted authority.
myriad n. A vast indefinite number.
mystic n. One who professes direct divine illumination, or relies upon meditation to acquire truth.
mystification n. The act of artfully perplexing.
myth n. A fictitious narrative presented as historical, but without any basis of fact.
mythology n. The whole body of legends cherished by a race concerning gods and heroes.
nameless adj. Having no fame or reputation.
naphtha n. A light, colorless, volatile, inflammable oil used as a solvent, as in manufacture of paints.
Narcissus n. The son of the Athenian river-god Cephisus, fabled to have fallen in love with his reflection.
narrate v. To tell a story.
narration n. The act of recounting the particulars of an event in the order of time or occurrence.
narrative n. An orderly continuous account of the successive particulars of an event.
narrator n. One who narrates anything.
narrow-minded adj. Characterized by illiberal views or sentiments.
nasal adj. Pertaining to the nose.
natal adj. Pertaining to one's birth.
nationality n. A connection with a particular nation.
naturally adv. According to the usual order of things.
nausea n. An affection of the stomach producing dizziness and usually an impulse to vomit
nauseate v. To cause to loathe.
nauseous adj. Loathsome.
nautical adj. Pertaining to ships, seamen, or navigation.
naval adj. Pertaining to ships.
navel n. The depression on the abdomen where the umbilical cord of the fetus was attached.
navigable adj. Capable of commercial navigation.
navigate v. To traverse by ship.
nebula n. A gaseous body of unorganized stellar substance.
necessary adj. Indispensably requisite or absolutely needed to accomplish a desired result.
necessitate v. To render indispensable.
necessity n. That which is indispensably requisite to an end desired.
necrology n. A list of persons who have died in a certain place or time.
necromancer n. One who practices the art of foretelling the future by means of communication with the dead.
necropolis n. A city of the dead.
necrosis n. the death of part of the body.
nectar n. Any especially sweet and delicious drink.
nectarine n. A variety of the peach.
needlework n. Embroidery.
needy adj. Being in need, want, or poverty.
nefarious adj. Wicked in the extreme.
negate v. To deny.
negation n. The act of denying or of asserting the falsity of a proposition.
neglectful adj. Exhibiting or indicating omission.
negligee n. A loose gown worn by women.
negligence n. Omission of that which ought to be done.
negligent adj. Apt to omit what ought to be done.
negligible adj. Transferable by assignment, endorsement, or delivery.
negotiable v. To bargain with others for an agreement, as for a treaty or transfer of property.
Nemesis n. A goddess; divinity of chastisement and vengeance.
neocracy n. Government administered by new or untried persons.
neo-Darwinsim n. Darwinism as modified and extended by more recent students.
neo-Latin n. Modernized Latin.
neopaganism n. A new or revived paganism.
Neolithic adj. Pertaining to the later stone age.
neology n. The coining or using of new words or new meanings of words.
neophyte adj. Having the character of a beginner.
nestle v. To adjust cozily in snug quarters.
nestling adj. Recently hatched.
nettle v. To excite sensations of uneasiness or displeasure in.
network n. Anything that presents a system of cross- lines.
neural adj. Pertaining to the nerves or nervous system.
neurology n. The science of the nervous system.
neuter adj. Neither masculine nor feminine.
neutral adj. Belonging to or under control of neither of two contestants.
nevertheless conj. Notwithstanding.
Newtonian adj. Of or pertaining to Sir Isaac Newton, the English philosopher.
niggardly adj. Stingy. (no longer acceptable to use)
nihilist n. An advocate of the doctrine that nothing either exists or can be known.
nil n. Nothing
nimble adj. Light and quick in motion or action.
nit n. The egg of a louse or some other insect.
nocturnal adj. Of or pertaining to the night.
noiseless adj. Silent.
noisome adj. Very offensive, particularly to the sense of smell.
noisy adj. Clamorous.
nomad adj. Having no fixed abode.
nomic adj. Usual or customary.
nominal adj. Trivial.
nominate v. To designate as a candidate for any office.
nomination n. The act or ceremony of naming a man or woman for office.
nominee n. One who receives a nomination.
non-existent n. That which does not exist.
non-resident adj. Not residing within a given jurisdiction.
nonchalance n. A state of mind indicating lack of interest.
non-combatant n. One attached to the army or navy, but having duties other than that of fighting.
nondescript adj. Indescribable.
nonentity n. A person or thing of little or no account.
nonpareil n. One who or that which is of unequaled excellence.
norm n. A model.
normalcy n. The state of being normal.
Norman adj. Of or peculiar to Normandy, in northern France.
nostrum n. Any scheme or recipe of a charlatan character.
noticeable adj. Perceptible.
notorious adj. Unfavorably known to the general public.
novellette n. A short novel.
novice n. A beginner in any business or occupation.
nowadays adv. In the present time or age.
nowhere adv. In no place or state.
noxious adj. Hurtful.
nuance n. A slight degree of difference in anything perceptible to the sense of the mind.
nucleus n. A central point or part about which matter is aggregated.
nude adj. Naked.
nugatory adj. Having no power or force.
nuisance n. That which annoys, vexes, or irritates.
numeration n. The act or art of reading or naming numbers.
numerical adj. Of or pertaining to number.
nunnery n. A convent for nuns.
nuptial adj. Of or pertaining to marriage, especially to the marriage ceremony.
nurture n. The process of fostering or promoting growth.
nutriment n. That which nourishes.
nutritive adj. Having nutritious properties.
oaken adj. Made of or from oak.
oakum n. Hemp-fiber obtained by untwisting and picking out loosely the yarns of old hemp rope.
obdurate adj. Impassive to feelings of humanity or pity.
obelisk n. A square shaft with pyramidal top, usually monumental or commemorative.
obese adj. Exceedingly fat.
obesity n. Excessive fatness.
obituary adj. A published notice of a death.
objective adj. Grasping and representing facts as they are.
objector n. One who objects, as to a proposition, measure, or ruling.
obligate v. To hold to the fulfillment of duty.
obligatory adj. Binding in law or conscience.
oblique adj. Slanting; said of lines.
obliterate v. To cause to disappear.
oblivion n. The state of having passed out of the memory or of being utterly forgotten.
oblong adj. Longer than broad: applied most commonly to rectangular objects considerably elongated
obnoxious adj. Detestable.
obsequies n. Funeral rites.
obsequious adj. Showing a servile readiness to fall in with the wishes or will of another.
observance n. A traditional form or customary act.
observant adj. Quick to notice.
observatory n. A building designed for systematic astronomical observations.
obsolescence n. The condition or process of gradually falling into disuse.
obsolescent adj. Passing out of use, as a word.
obsolete adj. No longer practiced or accepted.
obstetrician n. A practitioner of midwifery.
obstetrics n. The branch of medical science concerned with the treatment and care of women during pregnancy.
obstinacy n. Stubborn adherence to opinion, arising from conceit or the desire to have one's own way.
obstreperous adj. Boisterous.
obstruct v. To fill with impediments so as to prevent passage, either wholly or in part.
obstruction n. Hindrance.
obtrude v. To be pushed or to push oneself into undue prominence.
obtrusive adj. Tending to be pushed or to push oneself into undue prominence.
obvert v. To turn the front or principal side of (a thing) toward any person or object.
obviate v. To clear away or provide for, as an objection or difficulty.
occasion n. An important event or celebration.
Occident n. The countries lying west of Asia and the Turkish dominions.
occlude v. To absorb, as a gas by a metal.
occult adj. Existing but not immediately perceptible.
occupant n. A tenant in possession of property, as distinguished from the actual owner.
occurrence n. A happening.
octagon n. A figure with eight sides and eight angles.
octave n. A note at this interval above or below any other, considered in relation to that other.
octavo n. A book, or collection of paper in which the sheets are so folded as to make eight leaves.
octogenarian adj. A person of between eighty and ninety years.
ocular adj. Of or pertaining to the eye.
oculist n. One versed or skilled in treating diseases of the eye.
oddity n. An eccentricity.
ode n. The form of lyric poetry anciently intended to be sung.
odious adj. Hateful.
odium n. A feeling of extreme repugnance, or of dislike and disgust.
odoriferous adj. Having or diffusing an odor or scent, especially an agreeable one.
odorous adj. Having an odor, especially a fragrant one.
off adj. Farther or more distant.
offhand adv. Without preparation.
officiate v. To act as an officer or leader.
officious adj. Intermeddling with what is not one's concern.
offshoot n. Something that branches off from the parent stock.
ogre n. A demon or monster that was supposed to devour human beings.
ointment n. A fatty preparation with a butter-like consistency in which a medicinal substance exists.
olfactory adj. of or pertaining to the sense of smell.
olive-branch n. A branch of the olive-tree, as an emblem of peace.
ominous adj. Portentous.
omission n. Exclusion.
omnipotence n. Unlimited and universal power.
Omnipotent adj. Possessed of unlimited and universal power.
omniscience n. Unlimited or infinite knowledge.
omniscient adj. Characterized by unlimited or infinite knowledge.
omnivorous adj. Eating or living upon food of all kinds indiscriminately.
onerous adj. Burdensome or oppressive.
onrush n. Onset.
onset n. An assault, especially of troops, upon an enemy or fortification.
onslaught n. A violent onset.
onus n. A burden or responsibility.
opalescence n. The property of combined refraction and reflection of light, resulting in smoky tints.
opaque adj. Impervious to light.
operate v. To put in action and supervise the working of.
operative adj. Active.
operator n. One who works with or controls some machine or scientific apparatus.
operetta n. A humorous play in dialogue and music, of more than one act.
opinion n. A conclusion or judgment held with confidence, but falling short of positive knowledge.
opponent n. One who supports the opposite side in a debate, discussion, struggle, or sport.
opportune adj. Especially fit as occurring, said, or done at the right moment.
opportunist n. One who takes advantage of circumstances to gain his ends.
opportunity n. Favorable or advantageous chance or opening.
opposite adj. Radically different or contrary in action or movement.
opprobrium n. The state of being scornfully reproached or accused of evil.
optic n. Pertaining to the eye or vision.
optician n. One who makes or deals in optical instruments or eye-glasses.
optics n. The science that treats of light and vision, and all that is connected with sight.
optimism n. The view that everything in nature and the history of mankind is ordered for the best.
option n. The right, power, or liberty of choosing.
optometry n. Measurement of the powers of vision.
opulence n. Affluence.
opulent adj. Wealthy.
oral adj. Uttered through the mouth.
orate v. To deliver an elaborate or formal public speech.
oration n. An elaborate or formal public speech.
orator n. One who delivers an elaborate or formal speech.
oratorio n. A composition for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra, generally taken from the Scriptures.
oratory n. The art of public speaking.
ordeal n. Anything that severely tests courage, strength, patience, conscience, etc.
ordinal n. That form of the numeral that shows the order of anything in a series, as first, second, third.
ordination n. A consecration to the ministry.
ordnance n. A general name for all kinds of weapons and their appliances used in war.
orgies n. Wild or wanton revelry.
origin n. The beginning of that which becomes or is made to be.
original adj. Not copied nor produced by imitation.
originate v. To cause or constitute the beginning or first stage of the existence of.
ornate adj. Ornamented to a marked degree.
orthodox adj. Holding the commonly accepted faith.
orthodoxy n. Acceptance of the common faith.
orthogonal adj. Having or determined by right angles.
orthopedic adj. Relating to the correcting or preventing of deformity
orthopedist n. One who practices the correcting or preventing of deformity
oscillate v. To swing back and forth.
osculate v. To kiss.
ossify v. to convert into bone.
ostentation n. A display dictated by vanity and intended to invite applause or flattery.
ostracism n. Exclusion from intercourse or favor, as in society or politics.
ostracize v. To exclude from public or private favor.
ought v. To be under moral obligation to be or do.
oust v. To eject.
out-and-out adv. Genuinely.
outbreak n. A sudden and violent breaking forth, as of something that has been pent up or restrained.
outburst n. A violent issue, especially of passion in an individual.
outcast n. One rejected and despised, especially socially.
outcry n. A vehement or loud cry or clamor.
outdo v. To surpass.
outlandish adj. Of barbarous, uncouth, and unfamiliar aspect or action.
outlast v. To last longer than.
outlaw n. A habitual lawbreaker.
outlive v. To continue to exist after.
out-of-the-way adj. Remotely situated.
outpost n. A detachment of troops stationed at a distance from the main body to guard against surprise.
outrage n. A gross infringement of morality or decency.
outrageous adj. Shocking in conduct.
outreach v. To reach or go beyond.
outride v. To ride faster than.
outrigger n. A part built or arranged to project beyond a natural outline for support.
outright adv. Entirely.
outskirt n. A border region.
outstretch v. To extend.
outstrip v. To go beyond.
outweigh v. To surpass in importance or excellence.
overdo v. To overtax the strength of.
overdose n. An excessive dose, usually so large a dose of a medicine that its effect is toxic.
overeat v. To eat to excess.
overhang n. A portion of a structure which projects or hangs over.
overleap v. To leap beyond.
overlord n. One who holds supremacy over another.
overpass v. To pass across or over, as a river.
overpay v. To pay or reward in excess.
overpower v. To gain supremacy or victory over by superior power.
overproduction n. Excessive production.
overreach v. To stretch out too far.
overrun v. To infest or ravage.
oversee v. To superintend.
overseer n. A supervisor.
overshadow v. To cast into the shade or render insignificant by comparison.
overstride v. To step beyond.
overthrow v. To vanquish an established ruler or government.
overtone n. A harmonic.
overture n. An instrumental prelude to an opera, oratorio, or ballet.
overweight n. Preponderance.
pacify v. To bring into a peaceful state.
packet n. A bundle, as of letters.
pact n. A covenant.
pagan n. A worshiper of false gods.
pageant n. A dramatic representation, especially a spectacular one.
palate n. The roof of the mouth.
palatial adj. Magnificent.
paleontology n. The branch of biology that treats of ancient life and fossil organisms.
palette n. A thin tablet, with a hole for the thumb, upon which artists lay their colors for painting.
palinode n. A retraction.
pall v. To make dull by satiety.
palliate v. To cause to appear less guilty.
pallid adj. Of a pale or wan appearance.
palpable n. perceptible by feeling or touch.
palsy n. Paralysis.
paly adj. Lacking color or brilliancy.
pamphlet n. A brief treatise or essay, usually on a subject of current interest.
pamphleteer v. To compose or issue pamphlets, especially controversial ones.
panacea n. A remedy or medicine proposed for or professing to cure all diseases.
Pan-American adj. Including or pertaining to the whole of America, both North and South.
pandemic adj. Affecting a whole people or all classes, as a disease.
pandemonium n. A fiendish or riotous uproar.
panegyric n. A formal and elaborate eulogy, written or spoken, of a person or of an act.
panel n. A rectangular piece set in or as in a frame.
panic n. A sudden, unreasonable, overpowering fear.
panoply n. A full set of armor.
panorama n. A series of large pictures representing a continuous scene.
pantheism n. The worship of nature for itself or its beauty.
Pantheon n. A circular temple at Rome with a fine Corinthian portico and a great domed roof.
pantomime n. Sign-language.
pantoscope n. A very wide-angled photographic lens.
papacy n. The official head of the Roman Catholic Church.
papyrus n. The writing-paper of the ancient Egyptians, and later of the Romans.
parable n. A brief narrative founded on real scenes or events usually with a moral.
paradox n. A statement or doctrine seemingly in contradiction to the received belief.
paragon n. A model of excellence.
parallel v. To cause to correspond or lie in the same direction and equidistant in all parts.
parallelism n. Essential likeness.
paralysis n. Loss of the power of contractility in the voluntary or involuntary muscles.
paralyze v. To deprive of the power to act.
paramount adj. Supreme in authority.
paramour n. One who is unlawfully and immorally a lover or a mistress.
paraphernalia n. Miscellaneous articles of equipment or adornment.
paraphrase v. Translate freely.
pare v. To cut, shave, or remove (the outside) from anything.
parentage n. The relation of parent to child, of the producer to the produced, or of cause to effect.
Pariah n. A member of a degraded class; a social outcast.
parish n. The ecclesiastical district in charge of a pastor.
Parisian adj. Of or pertaining to the city of Paris.
parity n. Equality, as of condition or rank.
parlance n. Mode of speech.
parley v. To converse in.
parliament n. A legislative body.
parlor n. A room for reception of callers or entertainment of guests.
parody v. To render ludicrous by imitating the language of.
paronymous adj. Derived from the same root or primitive word.
paroxysm n. A sudden outburst of any kind of activity.
parricide n. The murder of a parent.
parse v. To describe, as a sentence, by separating it into its elements and describing each word.
parsimonious adj. Unduly sparing in the use or expenditure of money.
partible adj. Separable.
participant n. One having a share or part.
participate v. To receive or have a part or share of.
partition n. That which separates anything into distinct parts.
partisan adj. Characterized by or exhibiting undue or unreasoning devotion to a party.
passible adj. Capable of feeling of suffering.
passive adj. Unresponsive.
pastoral adj. Having the spirit or sentiment of rural life.
paternal adj. Fatherly.
paternity n. Fatherhood.
pathos n. The quality in any form of representation that rouses emotion or sympathy.
patriarch n. The chief of a tribe or race who rules by paternal right.
patrician adj. Of senatorial or noble rank.
patrimony n. An inheritance from an ancestor, especially from one's father.
patriotism n. Love and devotion to one's country.
patronize v. To exercise an arrogant condescension toward.
patronymic adj. Formed after one's father's name.
patter v. To mumble something over and over.
paucity n. Fewness.
pauper n. One without means of support.
pauperism n. Dependence on charity.
pavilion n. An open structure for temporary shelter.
payee n. A person to whom money has been or is to be paid.
peaceable adj. Tranquil.
peaceful adj. Tranquil.
peccable adj. Capable of sinning.
peccadillo n. A small breach of propriety or principle.
peccant adj. Guilty.
pectoral adj. Pertaining to the breast or thorax.
pecuniary adj. Consisting of money.
pedagogics n. The science and art of teaching.
pedagogue n. A schoolmaster.
pedagogy n. The science and art of teaching
pedal n. A lever for the foot usually applied only to musical instruments, cycles, and other machines.
pedant n. A scholar who makes needless and inopportune display of his learning.
peddle v. To go about with a small stock of goods to sell.
pedestal n. A base or support as for a column, statue, or vase.
pedestrian n. One who journeys on foot.
pediatrics n. The department of medical science that relates to the treatment of diseases of childhood.
pedigree n. One's line of ancestors.
peddler n. One who travels from house to house with an assortment of goods for retail.
peerage n. The nobility.
peerless adj. Of unequaled excellence or worth.
peevish adj. Petulant. (irritable)
pellucid adj. Translucent.
penalty n. The consequences that follow the transgression of natural or divine law.
penance n. Punishment to which one voluntarily submits or subjects himself as an expression of penitence.
penchant n. A bias in favor of something.
pendant n. Anything that hangs from something else, either for ornament or for use.
pendulous adj. Hanging, especially so as to swing by an attached end or part.
pendulum n. A weight hung on a rod, serving by its oscillation to regulate the rate of a clock.
penetrable adj. That may be pierced by physical, moral, or intellectual force.
penetrate v. To enter or force a way into the interior parts of.
penetration n. Discernment.
peninsular adj. Pertaining to a piece of land almost surrounded by water.
penitence n. Sorrow for sin with desire to amend and to atone.
penitential adj. Pertaining to sorrow for sin with desire to amend and to atone.
pennant n. A small flag.
pension n. A periodical allowance to an individual on account of past service done by him/her.
pentagram n. A figure having five points or lobes.
pentavalent adj. Quinqeuvalent.
pentad n. The number five.
pentagon n. A figure, especially, with five angles and five sides.
pentahedron n. A solid bounded by five plane faces.
pentameter n. In prosody, a line of verse containing five units or feet.
pentathlon n. The contest of five associated exercises in the great games and the same contestants.
penultimate adj. A syllable or member of a series that is last but one.
penurious adj. Excessively sparing in the use of money.
penury n. Indigence.
perambulate v. To walk about.
perceive v. To have knowledge of, or receive impressions concerning, through the medium of the body senses.
perceptible adj. Cognizable.
perception n. Knowledge through the senses of the existence and properties of matter or the external world.
percipience n. The act of perceiving.
percipient n. One who or that which perceives.
percolate v. To filter.
percolator n. A filter.
percussion n. The sharp striking of one body against another.
peremptory adj. Precluding question or appeal.
perennial adj. Continuing though the year or through many years.
perfectible adj. Capable of being made perfect.
perfidy n. Treachery.
perforate v. To make a hole or holes through.
perform v. To accomplish.
perfumery n. The preparation of perfumes.
perfunctory adj. Half-hearted.
perhaps adv. Possibly.
perigee n. The point in the orbit of the moon when it is nearest the earth.
periodicity n. The habit or characteristic of recurrence at regular intervals.
peripatetic adj. Walking about.
perjure v. To swear falsely to.
perjury n. A solemn assertion of a falsity.
permanence n. A continuance in the same state, or without any change that destroys the essential form or nature.
permanent adj. Durable.
permeate v. To pervade.
permissible adj. That may be allowed.
permutation n. Reciprocal change, different ordering of same items.
pernicious adj. Tending to kill or hurt.
perpendicular adj. Straight up and down.
perpetrator n. The doer of a wrong or a criminal act.
perpetuate v. To preserve from extinction or oblivion.
perquisite n. Any profit from service beyond the amount fixed as salary or wages.
persecution n. Harsh or malignant oppression.
perseverance n. A persistence in purpose and effort.
persevere v. To continue striving in spite of discouragements.
persiflage n. Banter.
persist v. To continue steadfast against opposition.
persistence n. A fixed adherence to a resolve, course of conduct, or the like.
personage n. A man or woman as an individual, especially one of rank or high station.
personal adj. Not general or public.
personality n. The attributes, taken collectively, that make up the character and nature of an individual.
personnel n. The force of persons collectively employed in some service.
perspective n. The relative importance of facts or matters from any special point of view.
perspicacious adj. Astute.
perspicacity n. Acuteness or discernment.
perspicuous adj. Lucid.
perspiration n. Sweat.
perspire v. To excrete through the pores of the skin.
persuade v. To win the mind of by argument, eloquence, evidence, or reflection.
persuadable adj. capable of influencing to action by entreaty, statement, or anything that moves the feelings.
pertinacious adj. Persistent or unyielding.
pertinacity n. Unyielding adherence.
pertinent adj. Relevant.
perturb v. To disturb greatly.
perturbation n. Mental excitement or confusion.
perusal n. The act of reading carefully or thoughtfully.
pervade v. To pass or spread through every part.
pervasion n. The state of spreading through every part.
pervasive adj. Thoroughly penetrating or permeating.
perverse adj. Unreasonable.
perversion n. Diversion from the true meaning or proper purpose.
perversity n. Wickedness.
pervert n. One who has forsaken a doctrine regarded as true for one esteemed false.
pervious adj. Admitting the entrance or passage of another substance.
pestilence n. A raging epidemic.
pestilent adj. Having a malign influence or effect.
pestilential adj. having the nature of or breeding pestilence.
peter v. To fail or lose power, efficiency, or value.
petrify v. To convert into a substance of stony hardness and character.
petulance n. The character or condition of being impatient, capricious or petulant.
petulant adj. Displaying impatience.
pharmacopoeia n. A book containing the formulas and methods of preparation of medicines for the use of druggists.
pharmacy n. The art or business of compounding and dispensing medicines.
phenomenal adj. Extraordinary or marvelous.
phenomenon n. Any unusual occurrence.
philander v. To play at courtship with a woman.
philanthropic adj. Benevolent.
philanthropist n. One who endeavors to help his fellow men.
philanthropy n. Active humanitarianism.
philately n. The study and collection of stamps.
philharmonic adj. Fond of music.
philogynist n. One who is fond of women.
philologist n. An expert in linguistics.
philology n. The study of language in connection with history and literature.
philosophize v. To seek ultimate causes and principles.
philosophy n. The general principles, laws, or causes that furnish the rational explanation of anything.
phlegmatic adj. Not easily roused to feeling or action.
phonetic adj. Representing articulate sounds or speech.
phonic adj. Pertaining to the nature of sound.
phonogram n. A graphic character symbolizing an articulate sound.
phonology n. The science of human vocal sounds.
phosphorescence n. The property of emitting light.
photoelectric adj. Pertaining to the combined action of light and electricity.
photometer n. Any instrument for measuring the intensity of light or comparing the intensity of two lights.
photometry n. The art of measuring the intensity of light.
physicist n. A specialist in the science that treats of the phenomena associated with matter and energy.
physics n. The science that treats of the phenomena associated with matter and energy.
physiocracy n. The doctrine that land and its products are the only true wealth.
physiognomy n. The external appearance merely.
physiography n. Description of nature.
physiology n. The science of organic functions.
physique n. The physical structure or organization of a person.
picayune adj. Of small value.
piccolo n. A small flute.
piece n. A loose or separated part, as distinguished from the whole or the mass.
piecemeal adv. Gradually.
pillage n. Open robbery, as in war.
pillory n. A wooden framework in which an offender is fastened to boards and is exposed to public scorn.
pincers n. An instrument having two lever-handles and two jaws working on a pivot.
pinchers n. An instrument having two jaws working on a pivot.
pinnacle n. A high or topmost point, as a mountain-peak.
pioneer n. One among the first to explore a country.
pious adj. Religious.
pique v. To excite a slight degree of anger in.
piteous adj. Compassionate.
pitiable adj. Contemptible.
pitiful adj. Wretched.
pitiless adj. Hard-hearted.
pittance n. Any small portion or meager allowance.
placate v. To bring from a state of angry or hostile feeling to one of patience or friendliness.
placid adj. Serene.
plagiarism n. The stealing of passages from the writings of another and publishing them as one's own.
planisphere n. A polar projection of the heavens on a chart.
plasticity n. The property of some substances through which the form of the mass can readily be changed.
platitude n. A written or spoken statement that is flat, dull, or commonplace.
plaudit n. An expression of applause.
plausible adj. Seeming likely to be true, though open to doubt.
playful adj. Frolicsome.
playwright n. A maker of plays for the stage.
plea n. An argument to obtain some desired action.
pleasant adj. Agreeable.
pleasurable adj. Affording gratification.
plebeian adj. Common.
pledgee n. The person to whom anything is pledged.
pledgeor n. One who gives a pledge.
plenary adj. Entire.
plenipotentiary n. A person fully empowered to transact any business.
plenitude n. Abundance.
plenteous adj. Abundant.
plumb n. A weight suspended by a line to test the verticality of something.
plummet n. A piece of lead for making soundings, adjusting walls to the vertical.
pluperfect adj. Expressing past time or action prior to some other past time or action.
plural adj. Containing or consisting of more than one.
plurality n. A majority.
plutocracy n. A wealthy class in a political community who control the government by means of their money.
pneumatic adj. Pertaining to or consisting of air or gas.
poesy n. Poetry.
poetaster n. An inferior poet.
poetic adj. Pertaining to poetry.
poetics n. The rules and principles of poetry.
poignancy n. Severity or acuteness, especially of pain or grief.
poignant adj. Severely painful or acute to the spirit.
poise n. Equilibrium.
polar adj. Pertaining to the poles of a sphere, especially of the earth.
polemics n. The art of controversy or disputation.
pollen n. The fine dust-like grains or powder formed within the anther of a flowering plant.
pollute v. To contaminate.
polyarchy n. Government by several or many persons of what- ever class.
polycracy n. The rule of many.
polygamy n. the fact or condition of having more than one wife or husband at once.
polyglot adj. Speaking several tongues.
polygon n. A figure having many angles.
polyhedron n. A solid bounded by plane faces, especially by more than four.
polysyllable adj. Having several syllables, especially more than three syllables.
polytechnic adj. Pertaining to, embracing, or practicing many arts.
polytheism n. The doctrine or belief that there are more gods than one.
pommel v. To beat with something thick or bulky.
pomposity n. The quality of being marked by an assumed stateliness and impressiveness of manner.
pompous adj. Marked by an assumed stateliness and impressiveness of manner.
ponder v. To meditate or reflect upon.
ponderous adj. Unusually weighty or forcible.
pontiff n. The Pope.
populace n. The common people.
populous adj. Containing many inhabitants, especially in proportion to the territory.
portend v. To indicate as being about to happen, especially by previous signs.
portent n. Anything that indicates what is to happen.
portfolio n. A portable case for holding writing-materials, drawings, etc.
posit v. To present in an orderly manner.
position n. The manner in which a thing is placed.
positive adj. Free from doubt or hesitation.
posse n. A force of men.
possess v. To own.
possession n. The having, holding, or detention of property in one's power or command.
possessive adj. Pertaining to the having, holding, or detention of property in one's power or command.
possessor n. One who owns, enjoys, or controls anything, as property.
possible adj. Being not beyond the reach of power natural, moral, or supernatural.
postdate v. To make the date of any writing later than the real date.
posterior n. The hinder part.
postgraduate adj. Pertaining to studies that are pursued after receiving a degree.
postscript n. Something added to a letter after the writer's signature.
potency n. Power.
potent adj. Physically powerful.
potentate n. One possessed of great power or sway.
potential n. Anything that may be possible.
potion n. A dose of liquid medicine.
powerless adj. Impotent.
practicable adj. Feasible.
prate v. To talk about vainly or foolishly.
prattle v. To utter in simple or childish talk.
preamble n. A statement introductory to and explanatory of what follows.
precarious adj. Perilous.
precaution n. A provision made in advance for some possible emergency or danger.
precede v. To happen first.
precedence n. Priority in place, time, or rank.
precedent n. An instance that may serve as a guide or basis for a rule.
precedential adj. Of the nature of an instance that may serve as a guide or basis for a rule.
precession n. The act of going forward.
precipice n. A high and very steep or approximately vertical cliff.
precipitant adj. Moving onward quickly and heedlessly.
precipitate v. To force forward prematurely.
precise adj. Exact.
precision n. Accuracy of limitation, definition, or adjustment.
preclude v. To prevent.
precocious adj. Having the mental faculties prematurely developed.
precursor n. A forerunner or herald.
predatory adj. Prone to pillaging.
predecessor n. An incumbent of a given office previous to another.
predicament n. A difficult, trying situation or plight.
predicate v. To state as belonging to something.
predict v. To foretell.
prediction n. A prophecy.
predominance n. Ascendancy or preponderance.
predominant adj. Superior in power, influence, effectiveness, number, or degree.
predominate v. To be chief in importance, quantity, or degree.
preeminence n. Special eminence.
preempt v. To secure the right of preference in the purchase of public land.
preemption n. The right or act of purchasing before others.
preengage v. To preoccupy.
preestablish v. To settle or arrange beforehand.
preexist v. To exist at a period or in a state earlier than something else.
preexistence n. Existence antecedent to something.
preface n. A brief explanation or address to the reader, at the beginning of a book.
prefatory adj. Pertaining to a brief explanation to the reader at the beginning of a book.
prefer v. To hold in higher estimation.
preferable adj. More desirable than others.
preference n. An object of favor or choice.
preferential adj. Possessing, giving, or constituting preference or priority.
preferment n. Preference.
prefix v. To attach at the beginning.
prehensible adj. Capable of being grasped.
prehensile adj. Adapted for grasping or holding.
prehension n. The act of laying hold of or grasping.
prejudice n. A judgment or opinion formed without due examination of the facts.
prelacy n. A system of church government.
prelate n. One of a higher order of clergy having direct authority over other clergy.
prelude n. An introductory or opening performance.
premature adj. Coming too soon.
premier adj. First in rank or position.
premise n. A judgment as a conclusion.
premonition n. Foreboding.
preoccupation n. The state of having the mind, attention, or inclination preoccupied.
preoccupy v. To fill the mind of a person to the exclusion of other subjects.
preordain v. To foreordain.
preparation n. An act or proceeding designed to bring about some event.
preparatory adj. Having to do with what is preliminary.
preponderant adj. Prevalent.
preponderate v. To exceed in influence or power.
prepossession n. A preconceived liking.
preposterous adj. Utterly ridiculous or absurd.
prerogative adj. Having superior rank or precedence.
presage v. To foretell.
prescience n. Knowledge of events before they take place.
prescient adj. Foreknowing.
prescript adj. Prescribed as a rule or model.
prescriptible adj. Derived from authoritative direction.
prescription n. An authoritative direction.
presentient adj. Perceiving or feeling beforehand.
presentiment n. Foreboding.
presentment n. Semblance.
preservation n. Conservation.
presumption n. That which may be logically assumed to be true until disproved.
presumptuous adj. Assuming too much.
pretension n. A bold or presumptuous assertion.
pretentious adj. Marked by pretense, conceit, or display.
preternatural adj. Extraordinary.
pretext n. A fictitious reason or motive.
prevalence n. Frequency.
prevalent adj. Of wide extent or frequent occurrence.
prevaricate v. To use ambiguous or evasive language for the purpose of deceiving or diverting attention.
prevention n. Thwarting.
prickle v. To puncture slightly with fine, sharp points.
priggish adj. Conceited.
prim adj. Stiffly proper.
prima adj. First.
primer n. An elementary reading-book for children.
primeval adj. Belonging to the first ages.
primitive adj. Pertaining to the beginning or early times.
principal adj. Most important.
principality n. The territory of a reigning prince.
principle n. A general truth or proposition.
priory n. A monastic house.
pristine adj. Primitive.
privateer n. A vessel owned and officered by private persons, but carrying on maritime war.
privilege n. A right or immunity not enjoyed by all, or that may be enjoyed only under special conditions.
privity n. Knowledge shared with another or others regarding a private matter.
privy adj. Participating with another or others in the knowledge of a secret transaction.
probate adj. Relating to making proof, as of a will.
probation n. Any proceeding designed to ascertain or test character, qualification, or the like.
probe v. To search through and through.
probity n. Virtue or integrity tested and confirmed.
procedure n. A manner or method of acting.
proceed v. To renew motion or action, as after rest or interruption.
proclamation n. Any announcement made in a public manner.
procrastinate v. To put off till tomorrow or till a future time.
procrastination n. Delay.
proctor n. An agent acting for another.
prodigal n. One wasteful or extravagant, especially in the use of money or property.
prodigious adj. Immense.
prodigy n. A person or thing of very remarkable gifts or qualities.
productive adj. Yielding in abundance.
profession n. Any calling or occupation involving special mental or other special disciplines.
professor n. A public teacher of the highest grade in a university or college.
proffer v. To offer to another for acceptance.
proficiency n. An advanced state of acquirement, as in some knowledge, art, or science.
proficient adj. Possessing ample and ready knowledge or of skill in any art, science, or industry.
profile n. An outline or contour.
profiteer n. One who profits.
profligacy n. Shameless viciousness.
profligate adj. Abandoned to vice.
profuse adj. Produced or displayed in overabundance.
progeny n. Offspring.
progression n. A moving forward or proceeding in course.
prohibition n. A decree or an order forbidding something.
prohibitionist n. One who favors the prohibition by law of the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages.
prohibitory adj. Involving or equivalent to prohibition, especially of the sale of alcoholic beverages.
projection n. A prominence.
proletarian n. A person of the lowest or poorest class.
prolific adj. Producing offspring or fruit.
prolix adj. Verbose.
prologue n. A prefatory statement or explanation to a poem, discourse, or performance.
prolong v. To extend in time or duration.
promenade v. To walk for amusement or exercise.
prominence n. The quality of being noticeable or distinguished.
prominent adj. Conspicuous in position, character, or importance.
promiscuous adj. Brought together without order, distinction, or design (for sex).
promissory adj. Expressing an engagement to pay.
promontory n. A high point of land extending outward from the coastline into the sea.
promoter n. A furtherer, forwarder, or encourager.
promulgate v. To proclaim.
propaganda n. Any institution or systematic scheme for propagating a doctrine or system.
propagate v. To spread abroad or from person to person.
propel v. To drive or urge forward.
propellant adj. Propelling.
propeller n. One who or that which propels.
prophecy n. Any prediction or foretelling.
prophesy v. To predict or foretell, especially under divine inspiration and guidance.
propitious adj. Kindly disposed.
proportionate adj. Being in proportion.
propriety n. Accordance with recognized usage, custom, or principles.
propulsion n. A driving onward or forward.
prosaic adj. Unimaginative.
proscenium n. That part of the stage between the curtain and the orchestra.
proscribe v. To reject, as a teaching or a practice, with condemnation or denunciation.
proscription n. Any act of condemnation and rejection from favor and privilege.
proselyte n. One who has been won over from one religious belief to another.
prosody n. The science of poetical forms.
prospector n. One who makes exploration, search, or examination, especially for minerals.
prospectus n. A paper or pamphlet containing information of a proposed undertaking.
prostrate adj. Lying prone, or with the head to the ground.
protagonist n. A leader in any enterprise or contest.
protection n. Preservation from harm, danger, annoyance, or any other evil.
protective adj. Sheltering.
protector n. A defender.
protege n. One specially cared for and favored by another usually older person.
Protestant n. A Christian who denies the authority of the Pope and holds the right of special judgment.
protomartyr n. The earliest victim in any cause.
protocol n. A declaration or memorandum of agreement less solemn and formal than a treaty.
protoplasm n. The substance that forms the principal portion of an animal or vegetable cell.
prototype n. A work, original in character, afterward imitated in form or spirit.
protract v. To prolong.
protrude v. To push out or thrust forth.
protrusion n. The act of protruding.
protuberance n. Something that swells out from a surrounding surface.
protuberant adj. Bulging.
protuberate v. To swell or bulge beyond the surrounding surface.
proverb n. A brief, pithy saying, condensing in witty or striking form the wisdom of experience.
provident adj. Anticipating and making ready for future wants or emergencies.
providential adj. Effected by divine guidance.
provincial adj. Uncultured in thought and manner.
proviso n. A clause in a contract, will, etc., by which its operation is rendered conditional.
provocation n. An action or mode of conduct that excites resentment.
prowess n. Strength, skill, and intrepidity in battle.
proximately adv. Immediately.
proxy n. A person who is empowered by another to represent him or her in a given matter.
prudence n. Caution.
prudential adj. Proceeding or marked by caution.
prudery n. An undue display of modesty or delicacy.
prurient adj. Inclined to lascivious thoughts and desires.
pseudapostle n. A pretended or false apostle.
pseudonym n. A fictitious name, especially when assumed by a writer.
pseudonymity n. The state or character of using a fictitious name.
psychiatry n. The branch of medicine that relates to mental disease.
psychic adj. Pertaining to the mind or soul.
psychopathic adj. Morally irresponsible.
psychotherapy n. The treatment of mental disease.
pudgy adj. Small and fat.
puerile adj. Childish.
pugnacious adj. Quarrelsome.
puissant adj. Possessing strength.
pulmonary adj. Pertaining to the lungs.
punctilious adj. Strictly observant of the rules or forms prescribed by law or custom.
punctual adj. Observant and exact in points of time.
pungent adj. Affecting the sense of smell.
pungency n. The quality of affecting the sense of smell.
punitive adj. Pertaining to punishment.
pupilage n. The state or period of being a student.
purgatory n. An intermediate state where souls are made fit for paradise or heaven by expiatory suffering.
purl v. To cause to whirl, as in an eddy.
purloin v. To steal.
purport n. Intent.
purveyor n. one who supplies
pusillanimous adj. Without spirit or bravery.
putrescent adj. Undergoing decomposition of animal or vegetable matter accompanied by fetid odors.
pyre n. A heap of combustibles arranged for burning a dead body.
pyromania n. An insane propensity to set things on fire.
pyrotechnic adj. Pertaining to fireworks or their manufacture.
pyx n. A vessel or casket, usually of precious metal, in which the host is preserved.
quackery n. Charlatanry
quadrate v. To divide into quarters.
quadruple v. To multiply by four.
qualification n. A requisite for an employment, position, right, or privilege.
qualify v. To endow or furnish with requisite ability, character, knowledge, skill, or possessions.
qualm n. A fit of nausea.
quandary n. A puzzling predicament.
quantity n. Magnitude.
quarantine n. The enforced isolation of any person or place infected with contagious disease.
quarrelsome adj. Irascible.
quarter n. One of four equal parts into which anything is or may be divided.
quarterly adj. Occurring or made at intervals of three months.
quartet n. A composition for four voices or four instruments.
quarto n. An eight-page newspaper of any size.
quay n. A wharf or artificial landing-place on the shore of a harbor or projecting into it.
querulous adj. Habitually complaining.
query v. To make inquiry.
queue n. A file of persons waiting in order of their arrival, as for admittance.
quibble n. An utterly trivial distinction or objection.
quiescence n. Quiet.
quiescent adj. Being in a state of repose or inaction.
quiet adj. Making no noise.
quietus n. A silencing, suppressing, or ending.
quintessence n. The most essential part of anything.
quintet n. Musical composition arranged for five voices or instruments.
quite adv. Fully.
Quixotic adj. Chivalrous or romantic to a ridiculous or extravagant degree.
rabid adj. Affected with rabies or hydrophobia.
racy adj. Exciting or exhilarating to the mind.
radiance n. Brilliant or sparkling luster.
radiate v. To extend in all directions, as from a source or focus.
radical n. One who holds extreme views or advocates extreme measures.
radix n. That from or on which something is developed.
raillery n. Good-humored satire.
ramify v. To divide or subdivide into branches or subdivisions.
ramose adj. Branch-like.
rampant adj. Growing, climbing, or running without check or restraint.
rampart n. A bulwark or construction to oppose assault or hostile entry.
rancor n. Malice.
rankle v. To produce irritation or festering.
rapacious adj. Disposed to seize by violence or by unlawful or greedy methods.
rapid adj. Having great speed.
rapine n. The act of seizing and carrying off property by superior force, as in war.
rapt adj. Enraptured.
raptorial adj. Seizing and devouring living prey.
ration v. To provide with a fixed allowance or portion, especially of food.
rationalism n. The formation of opinions by relying upon reason alone, independently of authority.
raucous adj. Harsh.
ravage v. To lay waste by pillage, rapine, devouring, or other destructive methods.
ravenous adj. Furiously voracious or hungry.
ravine n. A deep gorge or hollow, especially one worn by a stream or flow of water.
reaction n. Tendency towards a former, or opposite state of things, as after reform, revolution, or inflation.
reactionary adj. Pertaining to, of the nature of, causing, or favoring reaction.
readily adv. Without objection or reluctance.
readjust v. To put in order after disarrangement.
ready adj. In a state of preparedness for any given purpose or occasion.
realism n. The principle and practice of depicting persons and scenes as they are believed really to exist.
rearrange v. To arrange again or in a different order.
reassure v. To give new confidence.
rebellious adj. Insubordinate.
rebuff n. A peremptory or unexpected rejection of advances or approaches.
rebuild v. To build again or anew.
rebut v. To oppose by argument or a sufficient answer.
recant v. To withdraw formally one's belief (in something previously believed or maintained).
recapitulate v. To repeat again the principal points of.
recapture v. To capture again.
recede v. To move back or away.
receivable adj. Capable of being or fit to be received - often money.
receptive adj. Having the capacity, quality, or ability of receiving, as truths or impressions.
recessive adj. Having a tendency to go back.
recidivist n. A confirmed criminal.
reciprocal adj. Mutually interchangeable or convertible.
reciprocate v. To give and take mutually.
reciprocity n. Equal mutual rights and benefits granted and enjoyed.
recitation n. The act of reciting or repeating, especially in public and from memory.
reck v. To have a care or thought for.
reckless adj. Foolishly headless of danger.
reclaim v. To demand or to obtain the return or restoration of.
recline v. To cause to assume a leaning or recumbent attitude or position.
recluse n. One who lives in retirement or seclusion.
reclusory n. A hermitage.
recognizance n. An acknowledgment entered into before a court with condition to do some particular act.
recognize v. To recall the identity of (a person or thing).
recoil v. To start back as in dismay, loathing, or dread.
recollect v. To recall the knowledge of.
reconcilable adj. Capable of being adjusted or harmonized.
reconnoiter v. To make a preliminary examination of for military, surveying, or geological purposes.
reconsider v. To review with care, especially with a view to a reversal of previous action.
reconstruct v. To rebuild.
recourse n. Resort to or application for help in exigency or trouble.
recover v. To regain.
recreant n. A cowardly or faithless person.
recreate v. To refresh after labor.
recrudescence n. The state of becoming raw or sore again.
recrudescent adj. Becoming raw or sore again.
recruit v. To enlist men for military or naval service.
rectify v. To correct.
rectitude n. The quality of being upright in principles and conduct.
recuperate v. To recover.
recur v. To happen again or repeatedly, especially at regular intervals.
recure v. To cure again.
recurrent adj. Returning from time to time, especially at regular or stated intervals.
redemption n. The recovery of what is mortgaged or pledged, by paying the debt.
redolent adj. Smelling sweet and agreeable.
redolence n. Smelling sweet and agreeable.
redoubtable adj. Formidable.
redound n. Rebound.
redress v. To set right, as a wrong by compensation or the punishment of the wrong-doer.
reducible adj. That may be reduced.
redundance n. Excess.
redundant adj. Constituting an excess.
reestablish v. To restore.
refer v. To direct or send for information or other purpose.
referrer n. One who refers.
referable adj. Ascribable.
referee n. An umpire.
refinery n. A place where some crude material, as sugar or petroleum, is purified.
reflectible adj. Capable of being turned back.
reflection n. The throwing off or back of light, heat, sound, or any form of energy that travels in waves.
reflector n. A mirror, as of metal, for reflecting light, heat, or sound in a particular direction.
reflexible adj. Capable of being reflected.
reform n. Change for the better.
reformer n. One who carries out a reform.
refract v. To bend or turn from a direct course.
refractory adj. Not amenable to control.
refragable adj. Capable of being refuted.
refringency n. Power to refract.
refringent adj. Having the power to refract.
refusal n. Denial of what is asked.
refute v. To prove to be wrong.
regale v. To give unusual pleasure.
regalia n. pl. The emblems of royalty.
regality n. Royalty.
regenerate v. To reproduce.
regent n. One who is lawfully deputized to administer the government for the time being in the name of the ruler.
regicide n. The killing of a king or sovereign.
regime n. Particular conduct or administration of affairs.
regimen n. A systematized order or course of living with reference to food, clothing and personal habits.
regiment n. A body of soldiers.
regnant adj. Exercising royal authority in one's own right.
regress v. To return to a former place or condition.
regretful adj. Feeling, expressive of, or full of regret.
rehabilitate v. To restore to a former status, capacity, right rank, or privilege.
reign v. To hold and exercise sovereign power.
reimburse v. To pay back as an equivalent of what has been expended.
rein n. A step attached to the bit for controlling a horse or other draft-animal.
reinstate v. To restore to a former state, station, or authority.
reiterate v. To say or do again and again.
rejoin v. To reunite after separation.
rejuvenate v. To restore to youth.
rejuvenescence n. A renewal of youth.
relapse v. To suffer a return of a disease after partial recovery.
relegate v. To send off or consign, as to an obscure position or remote destination.
relent v. To yield.
relevant adj. Bearing upon the matter in hand.
reliance n. Dependence.
reliant adj. Having confidence.
relinquish v. To give up using or having.
reliquary n. A casket, coffer, or repository in which relics are kept.
relish v. To like the taste or savor of.
reluctance n. Unwillingness.
reluctant adj. Unwilling.
remembrance n. Recollection.
reminiscence n. The calling to mind of incidents within the range of personal knowledge or experience.
reminiscent adj. Pertaining to the recollection of matters of personal interest.
remiss adj. Negligent.
remission n. Temporary diminution of a disease.
remodel v. Reconstruct.
remonstrance n. Reproof.
remonstrant adj. Having the character of a reproof.
remonstrate v. To present a verbal or written protest to those who have power to right or prevent a wrong.
remunerate v. To pay or pay for.
remuneration n. Compensation.
Renaissance n. The revival of letters, and then of art, which marks the transition from medieval to modern time.
rendezvous n. A prearranged place of meeting.
rendition n. Interpretation.
renovate v. To restore after deterioration, as a building.
renunciation n. An explicit disclaimer of a right or privilege.
reorganize v. To change to a more satisfactory form of organization.
reparable adj. Capable of repair.
reparation n. The act of making amends, as for an injury, loss, or wrong.
repartee n. A ready, witty, or apt reply.
repeal v. To render of no further effect.
repel v. To force or keep back in a manner, physically or mentally.
repellent adj. Having power to force back in a manner, physically or mentally.
repentance n. Sorrow for something done or left undone, with desire to make things right by undoing the wrong.
repertory n. A place where things are stored or gathered together.
repetition n. The act of repeating.
repine v. To indulge in fretfulness and faultfinding.
replenish v. To fill again, as something that has been emptied.
replete adj. Full to the uttermost.
replica n. A duplicate executed by the artist himself, and regarded, equally with the first, as an original.
repository n. A place in which goods are stored.
reprehend v. To find fault with.
reprehensible adj. Censurable.
reprehension n. Expression of blame.
repress v. To keep under restraint or control.
repressible adj. Able to be kept under restraint or control.
reprieve v. To grant a respite from punishment to.
reprimand v. To chide or rebuke for a fault.
reprisal n. Any infliction or act by way of retaliation on an enemy.
reprobate n. One abandoned to depravity and sin.
reproduce v. To make a copy of.
reproduction n. The process by which an animal or plant gives rise to another of its kind.
reproof n. An expression of disapproval or blame personally addressed to one censured.
repudiate v. To refuse to have anything to do with.
repugnance n. Thorough dislike.
repugnant adj. Offensive to taste and feeling.
repulse n. The act of beating or driving back, as an attacking or advancing enemy.
repulsive adj. Grossly offensive.
repute v. To hold in general opinion.
requiem n. A solemn mass sung for the repose of the souls of the dead.
requisite adj. Necessary.
requital n. Adequate return for good or ill.
requite v. To repay either good or evil to, as to a person.
rescind v. To make void, as an act, by the enacting authority or a superior authority.
reseat v. To place in position of office again.
resemblance n. Similarity in quality or form.
resent v. To be indignant at, as an injury or insult.
reservoir n. A receptacle where a quantity of some material, especially of a liquid or gas, may be kept.
residue n. A remainder or surplus after a part has been separated or otherwise treated.
resilience n. The power of springing back to a former position
resilient adj. Having the quality of springing back to a former position.
resistance n. The exertion of opposite effort or effect.
resistant adj. Offering or tending to produce resistance.
resistive adj. Having or exercising the power of resistance.
resistless adj. Powerless.
resonance n. The quality of being able to reinforce sound by sympathetic vibrations.
resonance adj. Able to reinforce sound by sympathetic vibrations.
resonate v. To have or produce resonance.
resource n. That which is restored to, relied upon, or made available for aid or support.
respite n. Interval of rest.
resplendent adj. Very bright.
respondent adj. Answering.
restitution n. Restoration of anything to the one to whom it properly belongs.
resumption n. The act of taking back, or taking again.
resurgent adj. Surging back or again.
resurrection n. A return from death to life
resuscitate v. To restore from apparent death.
retaliate v. To repay evil with a similar evil.
retch v. To make an effort to vomit.
retention n. The keeping of a thing within one's power or possession.
reticence n. The quality of habitually keeping silent or being reserved in utterance.
reticent adj. Habitually keeping silent or being reserved in utterance.
retinue n. The body of persons who attend a person of importance in travel or public appearance.
retort n. A retaliatory speech.
retouch v. To modify the details of.
retrace v. To follow backward or toward the place of beginning, as a track or marking.
retract v. To recall or take back (something that one has said).
retrench v. To cut down or reduce in extent or quantity.
retrieve v. To recover something by searching.
retroactive adj. Operative on, affecting, or having reference to past events, transactions, responsibilities.
retrograde v. To cause to deteriorate or to move backward.
retrogression n. A going or moving backward or in a reverse direction.
retrospect n. A view or contemplation of something past.
retrospective adj. Looking back on the past.
reunite v. To unite or join again, as after separation.
revelation n. A disclosing, discovering, or making known of what was before secret, private, or unknown.
revere v. To regard with worshipful veneration.
reverent adj. Humble.
reversion n. A return to or toward some former state or condition.
revert v. To return, or turn or look back, as toward a former position or the like.
revile v. To heap approach or abuse upon.
revisal n. Revision.
revise v. To examine for the correction of errors, or for the purpose of making changes.
revocation n. Repeal.
revoke v. To rescind.
rhapsody n. Rapt or rapturous utterance.
rhetoric n. The art of discourse.
rhetorician n. A showy writer or speaker.
ribald adj. Indulging in or manifesting coarse indecency or obscenity.
riddance n. The act or ridding or delivering from something undesirable.
ridicule n. Looks or acts expressing amused contempt.
ridiculous adj. Laughable and contemptible.
rife adj. Abundant.
righteousness n. Rectitude.
rightful adj. Conformed to a just claim according to established laws or usage.
rigmarole n. Nonsense.
rigor n. Inflexibility.
rigorous adj. Uncompromising.
ripplet n. A small ripple, as of water.
risible adj. capable of exciting laughter.
rivulet n. A small stream or brook.
robust adj. Characterized by great strength or power of endurance.
rondo n. A musical composition during which the first part or subject is repeated several times.
rookery n. A place where crows congregate to breed.
rotary adj. Turning around its axis, like a wheel, or so constructed as to turn thus.
rotate v. To cause to turn on or as on its axis, as a wheel.
rote n. Repetition of words or sounds as a means of learning them, with slight attention.
rotund adj. Round from fullness or plumpness.
rudimentary adj. Being in an initial, early, or incomplete stage of development.
rue v. To regret extremely.
ruffian adj. A lawless or recklessly brutal fellow.
ruminant adj. Chewing the cud.
ruminate v. To chew over again, as food previously swallowed and regurgitated.
rupture v. To separate the parts of by violence.
rustic adj. Characteristic of dwelling in the country.
ruth n. Sorrow for another's misery.
sacrifice v. To make an offering of to deity, especially by presenting on an altar.
sacrificial adj. Offering or offered as an atonement for sin.
sacrilege n. The act of violating or profaning anything sacred.
sacrilegious adj. Impious.
safeguard v. To protect.
sagacious adj. Able to discern and distinguish with wise perception.
salacious adj. Having strong sexual desires.
salience n. The condition of standing out distinctly.
salient adj. Standing out prominently.
saline adj. Constituting or consisting of salt.
salutary adj. Beneficial.
salutation n. Any form of greeting, hailing, or welcome, whether by word or act.
salutatory n. The opening oration at the commencement in American colleges.
salvage n. Any act of saving property.
salvo n. A salute given by firing all the guns, as at the funeral of an officer.
sanctimonious adj. Making an ostentatious display or hypocritical pretense of holiness or piety.
sanction v. To approve authoritatively.
sanctity n. Holiness.
sanguinary adj. Bloody.
sanguine adj. Having the color of blood.
sanguineous adj. Consisting of blood.
sapid adj. Affecting the sense of taste.
sapience n. Deep wisdom or knowledge.
sapient adj. Possessing wisdom.
sapiential adj. Possessing wisdom.
saponaceous adj. Having the nature or quality of soap.
sarcasm n. Cutting and reproachful language.
sarcophagus n. A stone coffin or a chest-like tomb.
sardonic adj. Scornfully or bitterly sarcastic.
satiate v. To satisfy fully the appetite or desire of.
satire n. The employment of sarcasm, irony, or keenness of wit in ridiculing vices.
satiric adj. Resembling poetry, in which vice, incapacity ,or corruption is held up to ridicule.
satirize v. To treat with sarcasm or derisive wit.
satyr n. A very lascivious person.
savage n. A wild and uncivilized human being.
savor v. To perceive by taste or smell.
scabbard n. The sheath of a sword or similar bladed weapon.
scarcity n. Insufficiency of supply for needs or ordinary demands.
scholarly adj. Characteristic of an erudite person.
scholastic adj. Pertaining to education or schools.
scintilla n. The faintest ray.
scintillate v. To emit or send forth sparks or little flashes of light.
scope n. A range of action or view.
scoundrel n. A man without principle.
scribble n. Hasty, careless writing.
scribe n. One who writes or is skilled in writing.
script n. Writing or handwriting of the ordinary cursive form.
Scriptural adj. Pertaining to, contained in, or warranted by the Holy Scriptures.
scruple n. Doubt or uncertainty regarding a question of moral right or duty.
scrupulous adj. Cautious in action for fear of doing wrong.
scurrilous adj. Grossly indecent or vulgar.
scuttle v. To sink (a ship) by making holes in the bottom.
scythe n. A long curved blade for mowing, reaping, etc.
seance n. A meeting of spirituals for consulting spirits.
sear v. To burn on the surface.
sebaceous adj. Pertaining to or appearing like fat.
secant adj. Cutting, especially into two parts.
secede v. To withdraw from union or association, especially from a political or religious body.
secession n. Voluntary withdrawal from fellowship, especially from political or religious bodies.
seclude v. To place, keep, or withdraw from the companionship of others.
seclusion n. Solitude.
secondary adj. Less important or effective than that which is primary.
secondly adv. In the second place in order or succession.
second-rate adj. Second in quality, size, rank, importance, etc.
secrecy n. Concealment.
secretary n. One who attends to correspondence, keeps records. or does other writing for others.
secretive adj. Having a tendency to conceal.
sedate adj. Even-tempered.
sedentary adj. Involving or requiring much sitting.
sediment n. Matter that settles to the bottom of a liquid.
sedition n. Conduct directed against public order and the tranquillity of the state.
seditious adj. Promotive of conduct directed against public order and the tranquillity of the state.
seduce v. To entice to surrender chastity.
sedulous adj. Persevering in effort or endeavor.
seer n. A prophet.
seethe v. To be violently excited or agitated.
seignior n. A title of honor or respectful address, equivalent to sir.
seismograph n. An instrument for recording the phenomena of earthquakes.
seize v. To catch or take hold of suddenly and forcibly.
selective adj. Having the power of choice.
self-respect n. Rational self-esteem.
semblance n. Outward appearance.
semicivilized adj. Half-civilized.
semiconscious adj. Partially conscious.
semiannual adj. Recurring at intervals of six months.
semicircle n. A half-circle.
seminar n. Any assemblage of pupils for real research in some specific study under a teacher.
seminary n. A special school, as of theology or pedagogics.
senile adj. Peculiar to or proceeding from the weakness or infirmity of old age.
sensation n. A condition of mind resulting from spiritual or inherent feeling.
sense n. The signification conveyed by some word, phrase, or action.
sensibility n. Power to perceive or feel.
sensitive adj. Easily affected by outside operations or influences.
sensorium n. The sensory apparatus.
sensual adj. Pertaining to the body or the physical senses.
sensuous adj. Having a warm appreciation of the beautiful or of the refinements of luxury.
sentence n. A related group of words containing a subject and a predicate and expressing a complete thought.
sentience n. Capacity for sensation or sense-perception.
sentient adj. Possessing the power of sense or sense-perception.
sentinel n. Any guard or watch stationed for protection.
separable adj. Capable of being disjoined or divided.
separate v. To take apart.
separatist n. A seceder.
septennial adj. Recurring every seven years.
sepulcher n. A burial-place.
sequacious adj. Ready to be led.
sequel n. That which follows in consequence of what has previously happened.
sequence n. The order in which a number or persons, things, or events follow one another in space or time.
sequent adj. Following in the order of time.
sequester v. To cause to withdraw or retire, as from society or public life.
sequestrate v. To confiscate.
sergeant n. A non-commissioned military officer ranking next above a corporal.
sergeant-at-arms n. An executive officer in legislative bodies who enforces the orders of the presiding officer.
sergeant-major n. The highest non-commissioned officer in a regiment.
service n. Any work done for the benefit of another.
serviceable adj. Durable.
servitude n. Slavery.
severance n. Separation.
severely adv. Extremely.
sextet n. A band of six singers or players.
sextuple adj. Multiplied by six.
sheer adj. Absolute.
shiftless adj. Wanting in resource, energy, or executive ability.
shrewd adj. Characterized by skill at understanding and profiting by circumstances.
shriek n. A sharp, shrill outcry or scream, caused by agony or terror.
shrinkage n. A contraction of any material into less bulk or dimension.
shrivel v. To draw or be drawn into wrinkles.
shuffle n. A mixing or changing the order of things.
sibilance n. A hissing sound.
sibilant adj. Made with a hissing sound.
sibilate v. To give a hissing sound to, as in pronouncing the letter s.
sidelong adj. Inclining or tending to one side.
sidereal adj. Pertaining to stars or constellations.
siege n. A beleaguerment.
significance n. Importance.
significant adj. Important, especially as pointing something out.
signification n. The meaning conveyed by language, actions, or signs.
similar adj. Bearing resemblance to one another or to something else.
simile n. A comparison which directs the mind to the representative object itself.
similitude n. Similarity.
simplify v. To make less complex or difficult.
simulate v. Imitate.
simultaneous adj. Occurring, done, or existing at the same time.
sinecure n. Any position having emoluments with few or no duties.
singe v. To burn slightly or superficially.
sinister adj. Evil.
sinuosity n. The quality of curving in and out.
sinuous adj. Curving in and out.
sinus n. An opening or cavity.
siren n. A sea-nymph, described by Homer as dwelling between the island of Circe and Scylla.
sirocco n. hot winds from Africa.
sisterhood n. A body of sisters united by some bond of sympathy or by a religious vow.
skeptic n. One who doubts any statements.
skepticism n. The entertainment of doubt concerning something.
skiff n. Usually, a small light boat propelled by oars.
skirmish n. Desultory fighting between advanced detachments of two armies.
sleight n. A trick or feat so deftly done that the manner of performance escapes observation.
slight adj. Of a small importance or significance.
slothful adj. Lazy.
sluggard n. A person habitually lazy or idle.
sociable adj. Inclined to seek company.
socialism n. A theory of civil polity that aims to secure the reconstruction of society.
socialist adj. One who advocates reconstruction of society by collective ownership of land and capital.
sociology n. The philosophical study of society.
Sol n. The sun.
solace n. Comfort in grief, trouble, or calamity.
solar adj. Pertaining to the sun.
solder n. A fusible alloy used for joining metallic surfaces or margins.
soldier n. A person engaged in military service.
solecism n. Any violation of established rules or customs.
solicitor n. One who represents a client in court of justice; an attorney.
solicitude n. Uneasiness of mind occasioned by desire, anxiety, or fear.
soliloquy n. A monologue.
solstice n. The time of year when the sun is at its greatest declination.
soluble adj. Capable of being dissolved, as in a fluid.
solvent adj. Having sufficient funds to pay all debts.
somber adj. Gloomy.
somniferous adj. Tending to produce sleep.
somnolence n. Oppressive drowsiness.
somnolent adj. Sleepy.
sonata n. An instrumental composition.
sonnet n. A poem of fourteen decasyllabic or octosyllabiclines expressing two successive phrases.
sonorous adj. Resonant.
soothsayer n. One who claims to have supernatural insight or foresight.
sophism n. A false argument understood to be such by the reasoner himself and intentionally used to deceive
sophistical adj. Fallacious.
sophisticate v. To deprive of simplicity of mind or manner.
sophistry n. Reasoning sound in appearance only, especially when designedly deceptive.
soprano n. A woman's or boy's voice of high range.
sorcery n. Witchcraft.
sordid adj. Of degraded character or nature.
souvenir n. A token of remembrance.
sparse adj. Thinly diffused.
Spartan adj. Exceptionally brave; rigorously severe.
spasmodic adj. Convulsive.
specialize v. To assume an individual or specific character, or adopt a singular or special course.
specialty n. An employment limited to one particular line of work.
specie n. A coin or coins of gold, silver, copper, or other metal.
species n. A classificatory group of animals or plants subordinate to a genus.
specimen n. One of a class of persons or things regarded as representative of the class.
specious adj. Plausible.
spectator n. One who beholds or looks on.
specter n. Apparition.
spectrum n. An image formed by rays of light or other radiant energy.
speculate v. To pursue inquiries and form conjectures.
speculator n. One who makes an investment that involves a risk of loss, but also a chance of profit.
sphericity n. The state or condition of being a sphere.
spheroid n. A body having nearly the form of a sphere.
spherometer n. An instrument for measuring curvature or radii of spherical surfaces.
spinous adj. Having spines.
spinster n. A woman who has never been married.
spontaneous adj. Arising from inherent qualities or tendencies without external efficient cause.
sprightly adj. Vivacious.
spurious adj. Not genuine.
squabble v. To quarrel.
squalid adj. Having a dirty, mean, poverty-stricken appearance.
squatter n. One who settles on land without permission or right.
stagnant adj. Not flowing: said of water, as in a pool.
stagnate v. To become dull or inert.
stagnation n. The condition of not flowing or not changing.
stagy adj. Having a theatrical manner.
staid adj. Of a steady and sober character.
stallion n. An uncastrated male horse, commonly one kept for breeding.
stanchion n. A vertical bar, or a pair of bars, used to confine cattle in a stall.
stanza n. A group of rimed lines, usually forming one of a series of similar divisions in a poem.
statecraft n. The art of conducting state affairs.
static adj. Pertaining to or designating bodies at rest or forces in equilibrium.
statics n. The branch of mechanics that treats of the relations that subsist among forces in order.
stationary adj. Not moving.
statistician n. One who is skilled in collecting and tabulating numerical facts.
statuesque adj. Having the grace, pose, or quietude of a statue.
statuette n. A figurine.
stature n. The natural height of an animal body.
statute n. Any authoritatively declared rule, ordinance, decree, or law.
stealth n. A concealed manner of acting.
stellar adj. Pertaining to the stars.
steppe n. One of the extensive plains in Russia and Siberia.
sterling adj. Genuine.
stifle v. To smother.
stigma n. A mark of infamy or token of disgrace attaching to a person as the result of evil-doing.
stiletto n. A small dagger.
stimulant n. Anything that rouses to activity or to quickened action.
stimulate v. To rouse to activity or to quickened action.
stimulus n. Incentive.
stingy adj. Cheap, unwilling to spend money.
stipend n. A definite amount paid at stated periods in compensation for services or as an allowance.
Stoicism n. The principles or the practice of the Stoics-being very even tempered in success and failure.
stolid adj. Expressing no power of feeling or perceiving.
strait n. A narrow passage of water connecting two larger bodies of water.
stratagem n. Any clever trick or device for obtaining an advantage.
stratum n. A natural or artificial layer, bed, or thickness of any substance or material.
streamlet n. Rivulet.
stringency n. Strictness.
stringent adj. Rigid.
stripling n. A mere youth.
studious adj. Having or showing devotion to the acquisition of knowledge.
stultify v. To give an appearance of foolishness to.
stupendous adj. Of prodigious size, bulk, or degree.
stupor n. Profound lethargy.
suasion n. The act of persuading.
suave adj. Smooth and pleasant in manner.
subacid adj. Somewhat sharp or biting.
subaquatic adj. Being, formed, or operating under water.
subconscious adj. Being or occurring in the mind, but without attendant consciousness or conscious perception.
subjacent adj. Situated directly underneath.
subjection n. The act of bringing into a state of submission.
subjugate v. To conquer.
subliminal adj. Being beneath the threshold of consciousness.
sublingual adj. Situated beneath the tongue.
submarine adj. Existing, done, or operating beneath the surface of the sea.
submerge v. To place or plunge under water.
submergence n. The act of submerging.
submersible adj. Capable of being put underwater.
submersion n. The act of submerging.
submission n. A yielding to the power or authority of another.
submittal n. The act of submitting.
subordinate adj. Belonging to an inferior order in a classification.
subsequent adj. Following in time.
subservience n. The quality, character, or condition of being servilely following another's behests.
subservient adj. Servilely following another's behests.
subside v. To relapse into a state of repose and tranquillity.
subsist v. To be maintained or sustained.
subsistence n. Sustenance.
substantive adj. Solid.
subtend v. To extend opposite to.
subterfuge n. Evasion.
subterranean adj. Situated or occurring below the surface of the earth.
subtle adj. Discriminating.
subtrahend n. That which is to be subtracted.
subversion n. An overthrow, as from the foundation.
subvert v. To bring to ruin.
succeed v. To accomplish what is attempted or intended.
success n. A favorable or prosperous course or termination of anything attempted.
successful adj. Having reached a high degree of worldly prosperity.
successor n. One who or that which takes the place of a predecessor or preceding thing.
succinct adj. Concise.
succulent adj. Juicy.
succumb v. To cease to resist.
sufferance n. Toleration.
sufficiency n. An ample or adequate supply.
suffrage n. The right or privilege of voting.
suffuse v. To cover or fill the surface of.
suggestible adj. That can be suggested.
suggestive adj. Stimulating to thought or reflection.
summary n. An abstract.
sumptuous adj. Rich and costly.
superabundance n. An excessive amount.
superadd v. To add in addition to what has been added.
superannuate v. To become deteriorated or incapacitated by long service.
superb adj. Sumptuously elegant.
supercilious adj. Exhibiting haughty and careless contempt.
superficial adj. Knowing and understanding only the ordinary and the obvious.
superfluity n. That part of anything that is in excess of what is needed.
superfluous adj. Being more than is needed.
superheat v. To heat to excess.
superintend v. To have the charge and direction of, especially of some work or movement.
superintendence n. Direction and management.
superintendent n. One who has the charge and direction of, especially of some work or movement.
superlative n. That which is of the highest possible excellence or eminence.
supernatural adj. Caused miraculously or by the immediate exercise of divine power.
supernumerary adj. Superfluous.
supersede v. To displace.
supine adj. Lying on the back.
supplant v. To take the place of.
supple adj. Easily bent.
supplementary adj. Being an addition to.
supplicant n. One who asks humbly and earnestly.
supplicate v. To beg.
supposition n. Conjecture.
suppress v. To prevent from being disclosed or punished.
suppressible adj. Capable of being suppressed.
suppression n. A forcible putting or keeping down.
supramundane adj. Supernatural.
surcharge n. An additional amount charged.
surety n. Security for payment or performance.
surfeit v. To feed to fullness or to satiety.
surmise v. To conjecture.
surmount v. To overcome by force of will.
surreptitious adj. Clandestine.
surrogate n. One who or that which is substituted for or appointed to act in place of another.
surround v. To encircle.
surveyor n. A land-measurer.
susceptibility n. A specific capability of feeling or emotion.
susceptible adj. Easily under a specified power or influence.
suspense n. Uncertainty.
suspension n. A hanging from a support.
suspicious adj. Inclined to doubt or mistrust.
sustenance n. Food.
swarthy adj. Having a dark hue, especially a dark or sunburned complexion.
Sybarite n. A luxurious person.
sycophant n. A servile flatterer, especially of those in authority or influence.
syllabic adj. Consisting of that which is uttered in a single vocal impulse.
syllabication n. Division of words into that which is uttered in a single vocal impulse.
syllable n. That which is uttered in a single vocal impulse.
syllabus n. Outline of a subject, course, lecture, or treatise.
sylph n. A slender, graceful young woman or girl.
symmetrical adj. Well-balanced.
symmetry n. Relative proportion and harmony.
sympathetic adj. Having a fellow-feeling for or like feelings with another or others.
sympathize v. To share the sentiments or mental states of another.
symphonic adj. Characterized by a harmonious or agreeable mingling of sounds.
symphonious adj. Marked by a harmonious or agreeable mingling of sounds.
symphony n. A harmonious or agreeable mingling of sounds.
synchronism n. Simultaneousness.
syndicate n. An association of individuals united for the prosecution of some enterprise.
syneresis n. The coalescence of two vowels or syllables, as e'er for ever.
synod n. An ecclesiastical council.
synonym n. A word having the same or almost the same meaning as some other.
synopsis n. A syllabus or summary.
systematic adj. Methodical.
tableau n. An arrangement of inanimate figures representing a scene from real life.
tacit adj. Understood.
taciturn adj. Disinclined to conversation.
tack n. A small sharp-pointed nail.
tact n. Fine or ready mental discernment shown in saying or doing the proper thing.
tactician n. One who directs affairs with skill and shrewdness.
tactics n. Any maneuvering or adroit management for effecting an object.
tangency n. The state of touching.
tangent adj. Touching.
tangible adj. Perceptible by touch.
tannery n. A place where leather is tanned.
tantalize v. To tease.
tantamount adj. Having equal or equivalent value, effect, or import.
tapestry n. A fabric to which a pattern is applied with a needle, designed for ornamental hangings.
tarnish v. To lessen or destroy the luster of in any way.
taut adj. Stretched tight.
taxation n. A levy, by government, of a fixed contribution.
taxidermy n. The art or process of preserving dead animals or parts of them.
technic adj. Technical.
technicality n. Something peculiar to a particular art, trade, or the like.
technique n. Manner of performance.
technography n. The scientific description or study of human arts and industries in their historic development.
technology n. The knowledge relating to industries and manufactures.
teem v. To be full to overflowing.
telepathy n. Thought-transference.
telephony n. The art or process of communicating by telephone.
telescope v. To drive together so that one slides into the another like the sections of a spy-glass.
telltale adj. That gives warning or information.
temerity n. Recklessness.
temporal adj. Pertaining to or concerned with the affairs of the present life.
temporary adj. Lasting for a short time only.
temporize v. To pursue a policy of delay.
tempt v. To offer to (somebody) an inducement to do wrong.
tempter n. An allurer or enticer to evil.
tenacious adj. Unyielding.
tenant n. An occupant.
tendency n. Direction or inclination, as toward some objector end.
tenet n. Any opinion, principle, dogma, or doctrine that a person believes or maintains as true.
tenor n. A settled course or manner of progress.
tense adj. Strained to stiffness.
tentative adj. Done as an experiment.
tenure n. The term during which a thing is held.
tercentenary adj. Pertaining to a period of 300 years.
termagant adj. Violently abusive and quarrelsome.
terminal adj. Pertaining to or creative of a boundary, limit.
terminate v. To put an end or stop to.
termination n. The act of ending or concluding.
terminus n. The final point or goal.
terrify v. To fill with extreme fear.
territorial adj. Pertaining to the domain over which a sovereign state exercises jurisdiction.
terse adj. Pithy.
testament n. A will.
testator n. The maker of a will.
testimonial n. A formal token of regard, often presented in public.
thearchy n. Government by a supreme deity.
theism n. Belief in God.
theocracy n. A government administered by ecclesiastics.
theocrasy n. The mixed worship of polytheism.
theologian n. A professor of divinity.
theological adj. Based on or growing out of divine revelation.
theology n. The branch of theological science that treats of God.
theoretical adj. Directed toward knowledge for its own sake without respect to applications.
theorist n. One given to speculating.
theorize v. To speculate.
thereabout adv. Near that number, quantity, degree, place, or time, approximately.
therefor adv. For that or this.
thermal adj. Of or pertaining to heat.
thermoelectric adj. Denoting electricity produced by heat.
thermoelectricity n. Electricity generated by differences of temperature,
thesis n. An essay or treatise on a particular subject.
thoroughbred adj. Bred from the best or purest blood or stock.
thoroughfare n. A public street or road.
thrall n. One controlled by an appetite or a passion.
tilth n. Cultivation.
timbre n. The quality of a tone, as distinguished from intensity and pitch.
timorous adj. Lacking courage.
tincture n. A solution, usually alcoholic, of some principle used in medicine.
tinge n. A faint trace of color.
tipsy adj. Befuddled with drinks.
tirade n. Harangue.
tireless adj. Untiring.
tiresome adj. Wearisome.
Titanic adj. Of vast size or strength.
toilsome adj. Laborious.
tolerable adj. Moderately good.
tolerance n. Forbearance in judging of the acts or opinions of others.
tolerant adj. Indulgent.
tolerate v. To passively permit or put up with.
toleration n. A spirit of charitable leniency.
topography n. The art of representing on a map the physical features of any locality or region with accuracy.
torpor n. Apathy.
torrid adj. Excessively hot.
tortious adj. Wrongful.
tortuous adj. Abounding in irregular bends or turns.
torturous adj. Marked by extreme suffering.
tractable adj. Easily led or controlled.
trait n. A distinguishing feature or quality.
trajectory n. The path described by a projectile moving under given forces.
trammel n. An impediment.
tranquil adj. Calm.
tranquilize v. To soothe.
tranquility n. Calmness.
transalpine adj. Situated on the other side of the Alps.
transact v. To do business.
transatlantic adj. Situated beyond or on the other side of the Atlantic.
transcend v. To surpass.
transcendent adj. Surpassing.
transcontinental adj. Extending or passing across a continent.
transcribe v. To write over again (something already written)
transcript n. A copy made directly from an original.
transfer v. To convey, remove, or cause to pass from one person or place to another.
transferable adj. Capable of being conveyed from one person or place to another.
transferee n. The person to whom a transfer is made.
transference n. The act of conveying from one person or place to another.
transferrer n. One who or that which conveys from one person or place to another.
transfigure v. To give an exalted meaning or glorified appearance to.
transfuse v. To pour or cause to pass, as a fluid, from one vessel to another.
transfusible adj. Capable of being poured from one vessel to another.
transfusion n. The act of pouring from one vessel to another.
transgress v. To break a law.
transience n. Something that is of short duration.
transient n. One who or that which is only of temporary existence.
transition n. Passage from one place, condition, or action to another.
transitory adj. Existing for a short time only.
translate v. To give the sense or equivalent of in another language or dialect.
translator n. An interpreter.
translucence n. The property or state of allowing the passage of light.
translucent adj. Allowing the passage of light.
transmissible adj. That may e sent through or across.
transmission n. The act of sending through or across.
transmit v. To send trough or across.
transmute v. To change in nature, substance, or form.
transparent adj. Easy to see through or understand.
transpire v. To come to pass.
transplant v. To remove and plant in another place.
transposition n. The act of reversing the order or changing the place of.
transverse adj. Lying or being across or in a crosswise direction.
travail n. Hard or agonizing labor.
travesty n. A grotesque imitation.
treacherous adj. Perfidious.
treachery n. Violation of allegiance, confidence, or plighted faith.
treasonable adj. Of the nature of betrayal, treachery, or breech of allegiance.
treatise n. An elaborate literary composition presenting a subject in all its parts.
treble adj. Multiplied by three.
trebly adv. Triply.
tremendous adj. Awe-inspiring.
tremor n. An involuntary trembling or shivering.
tremulous adj. Characterized by quivering or unsteadiness.
trenchant adj. Cutting deeply and quickly.
trepidation n. Nervous uncertainty of feeling.
trestle n. An open braced framework for supporting the horizontal stringers of a railway-bridge.
triad n. A group of three persons of things.
tribune n. Any champion of the rights and liberties of the people: often used as the name for a newspaper.
trickery n. Artifice.
tricolor adj. Of three colors.
tricycle n. A three-wheeled vehicle.
trident n. The three-pronged fork that was the emblem of Neptune.
triennial adj. Taking place every third year.
trimness n. Neatness.
trinity n. A threefold personality existing in the one divine being or substance.
trio n. Three things grouped or associated together.
triple adj. Threefold.
triplicate adj. Composed of or pertaining to three related things or parts.
triplicity n. The state of being triple or threefold.
tripod n. A three-legged stand, usually hinged near the top, for supporting some instrument.
trisect v. To divide into three parts, especially into three equal parts.
trite adj. Made commonplace by frequent repetition.
triumvir n. One of three men united coordinately in public office or authority.
trivial adj. Of little importance or value.
troublesome adj. Burdensome.
truculence n. Ferocity.
truculent adj. Having the character or the spirit of a savage.
truism n. A statement so plainly true as hardly to require statement or proof.
truthful adj. Veracious.
turgid adj. Swollen.
turpitude n. Depravity.
tutelage n. The act of training or the state of being under instruction.
tutelar adj. Protective.
tutorship n. The office of a guardian.
twinge n. A darting momentary local pain.
typical adj. Characteristic.
typify v. To serve as a characteristic example of.
typographical adj. Pertaining to typography or printing.
typography n. The arrangement of composed type, or the appearance of printed matter.
tyrannical adj. Despotic.
tyranny n. Absolute power arbitrarily or unjustly administrated.
tyro n. One slightly skilled in or acquainted with any trade or profession.
ubiquitous adj. Being present everywhere.
ulterior adj. Not so pertinent as something else to the matter spoken of.
ultimate adj. Beyond which there is nothing else.
ultimatum n. A final statement or proposal, as concerning terms or conditions.
ultramundane adj. Pertaining to supernatural things or to another life.
ultramontane adj. Beyond the mountains, especially beyond the Alps (that is, on their Italian side).
umbrage n. A sense of injury.
unaccountable adj. Inexplicable.
unaffected adj. Sincere.
unanimous adj. Sharing the same views or sentiments.
unanimity n. The state or quality of being of one mind.
unavoidable adj. Inevitable.
unbearable adj. Unendurable.
unbecoming adj. Unsuited to the wearer, place, or surroundings.
unbelief n. Doubt.
unbiased adj. Impartial, as judgment.
unbridled adj. Being without restraint.
uncommon adj. Rare.
unconscionable adj. Ridiculously or unjustly excessive.
unconscious adj. Not cognizant of objects, actions, etc.
unction n. The art of anointing as with oil.
unctuous adj. Oily.
undeceive v. To free from deception, as by apprising of the real state of affairs.
undercharge v. To make an inadequate charge for.
underexposed adj. Insufficiently exposed for proper or full development, as negatives in photography.
undergarment n. A garment to be worn under the ordinary outer garments.
underman v. To equip with less than the full complement of men.
undersell v. To sell at a lower price than.
undersized adj. Of less than the customary size.
underhanded adj. Clandestinely carried on.
underlie v. To be the ground or support of.
underling n. A subordinate.
undermine v. To subvert in an underhand way.
underrate v. To undervalue.
understate v. To fail to put strongly enough, as a case.
undervalue v. To underestimate.
underworld n. Hades.
underwrite v. To issue or be party to the issue of a policy of insurance.
undue adj. More than sufficient.
undulate v. To move like a wave or in waves.
undulous adj. Resembling waves.
unfavorable adj. Adverse.
ungainly adj. Clumsy.
unguent n. Any ointment or lubricant for local application.
unicellular adj. Consisting of a single cell.
univalence n. Monovalency.
unify v. To cause to be one.
unique adj. Being the only one of its kind.
unison n. A condition of perfect agreement and accord.
unisonant adj. Being in a condition of perfect agreement and accord.
Unitarian adj. Pertaining to a religious body that rejects the doctrine of the Trinity.
unlawful adj. Illegal.
unlimited adj. Unconstrained.
unnatural adj. Artificial.
unnecessary adj. Not essential under the circumstances.
unsettle v. To put into confusion.
unsophisticated adj. Showing inexperience.
unspeakable adj. Abominable.
untimely adj. Unseasonable.
untoward adj. Causing annoyance or hindrance.
unutterable adj. Inexpressible.
unwieldy adj. Moved or managed with difficulty, as from great size or awkward shape.
unwise adj. Foolish.
unyoke v. To separate.
up-keep n. Maintenance.
upbraid v. To reproach as deserving blame.
upcast n. A throwing upward.
upheaval n. Overthrow or violent disturbance of established order or condition.
upheave v. To raise or lift with effort.
uppermost adj. First in order of precedence.
uproarious adj. Noisy.
uproot v. To eradicate.
upturn v. To throw into confusion.
urban adj. Of, or pertaining to, or like a city.
urbanity n. Refined or elegant courtesy.
urchin n. A roguish, mischievous boy.
urgency n. The pressure of necessity.
usage n. Treatment.
usurious adj. Taking unlawful or exorbitant interest on money loaned.
usurp v. To take possession of by force.
usury n. The demanding for the use of money as a loan, a rate of interest beyond what is allowed by law.
utilitarianism n. The ethical doctrine that actions are right because they are useful or of beneficial tendency.
utility n. Fitness for some desirable practical purpose.
utmost n. The greatest possible extent.
vacate v. To leave.
vaccinate v. To inoculate with vaccine virus or virus of cowpox.
vacillate v. To waver.
vacuous adj. Empty.
vacuum n. A space entirely devoid of matter.
vagabond n. A wanderer.
vagrant n. An idle wanderer.
vainglory n. Excessive, pretentious, and demonstrative vanity.
vale n. Level or low land between hills.
valediction n. A bidding farewell.
valedictorian n. Student who delivers an address at graduating exercises of an educational institution.
valedictory n. A parting address.
valid adj. Founded on truth.
valorous adj. Courageous.
vapid adj. Having lost sparkling quality and flavor.
vaporizer n. An atomizer.
variable adj. Having a tendency to change.
variance n. Change.
variant n. A thing that differs from another in form only, being the same in essence or substance.
variation n. Modification.
variegate v. To mark with different shades or colors.
vassal n. A slave or bondman.
vaudeville n. A variety show.
vegetal adj. Of or pertaining to plants.
vegetarian n. One who believes in the theory that man's food should be exclusively vegetable.
vegetate v. To live in a monotonous, passive way without exercise of the mental faculties.
vegetation n. Plant-life in the aggregate.
vegetative adj. Pertaining to the process of plant-life.
vehement adj. Very eager or urgent.
velocity n. Rapid motion.
velvety adj. Marked by lightness and softness.
venal adj. Mercenary, corrupt.
vendible adj. Marketable.
vendition n. The act of selling.
vendor n. A seller.
veneer n. Outside show or elegance.
venerable adj. Meriting or commanding high esteem.
venerate v. To cherish reverentially.
venereal adj. Pertaining to or proceeding from sexual intercourse.
venial adj. That may be pardoned or forgiven, a forgivable sin.
venison n. The flesh of deer.
venom n. The poisonous fluid that certain animals secrete.
venous adj. Of, pertaining to, or contained or carried in a vein or veins.
veracious adj. Habitually disposed to speak the truth.
veracity n. Truthfulness.
verbatim adv. Word for word.
verbiage n. Use of many words without necessity.
verbose adj. Wordy.
verdant adj. Green with vegetation.
verification n. The act of proving to be true, exact, or accurate.
verify v. To prove to be true, exact, or accurate.
verily adv. In truth.
verity n. Truth.
vermin n. A noxious or troublesome animal.
vernacular n. The language of one's country.
vernal adj. Belonging to or suggestive of the spring.
versatile adj. Having an aptitude for applying oneself to new and varied tasks or to various subjects.
version n. A description or report of something as modified by one's character or opinion.
vertex n. Apex.
vertical adj. Lying or directed perpendicularly to the horizon.
vertigo n. Dizziness.
vestige n. A visible trace, mark, or impression, of something absent, lost, or gone.
vestment n. Clothing or covering.
veto n. The constitutional right in a chief executive of refusing to approve an enactment.
vicarious adj. Suffered or done in place of or for the sake of another.
viceroy n. A ruler acting with royal authority in place of the sovereign in a colony or province.
vicissitude n. A change, especially a complete change, of condition or circumstances, as of fortune.
vie v. To contend.
vigilance n. Alert and intent mental watchfulness in guarding against danger.
vigilant adj. Being on the alert to discover and ward off danger or insure safety.
vignette n. A picture having a background or that is shaded off gradually.
vincible adj. Conquerable.
vindicate v. To prove true, right, or real.
vindicatory adj. Punitive.
vindicative adj. Revengeful.
vinery n. A greenhouse for grapes.
viol n. A stringed instrument of the violin class.
viola n. A musical instrument somewhat larger than a violin.
violator n. One who transgresses.
violation n. Infringement.
violoncello n. A stringed instrument held between the player's knees.
virago n. A bold, impudent, turbulent woman.
virile adj. Masculine.
virtu n. Rare, curious, or beautiful quality.
virtual adj. Being in essence or effect, but not in form or appearance.
virtuoso n. A master in the technique of some particular fine art.
virulence n. Extreme poisonousness.
virulent adj. Exceedingly noxious or deleterious.
visage n. The face, countenance, or look of a person.
viscount n. In England, a title of nobility, ranking fourth in the order of British peerage.
vista n. A view or prospect.
visual adj. Perceptible by sight.
visualize v. To give pictorial vividness to a mental representation.
vitality n. The state or quality of being necessary to existence or continuance.
vitalize v. To endow with life or energy.
vitiate v. To contaminate.
vituperable adj. Deserving of censure.
vivacity n. Liveliness.
vivify v. To endue with life.
vivisection n. The dissection of a living animal.
vocable n. a word, especially one regarded in relation merely to its qualities of sound.
vocative adj. Of or pertaining to the act of calling.
vociferance n. The quality of making a clamor.
vociferate v. To utter with a loud and vehement voice.
vociferous adj. Making a loud outcry.
vogue n. The prevalent way or fashion.
volant adj. Flying or able to fly.
volatile adj. Changeable.
volition n. An act or exercise of will.
volitive adj. Exercising the will.
voluble adj. Having great fluency in speaking.
voluptuous adj. having fullness of beautiful form, as a woman, with or without sensuous or sensual quality.
voracious adj. Eating with greediness or in very large quantities.
vortex n. A mass of rotating or whirling fluid, especially when sucked spirally toward the center.
votary adj. Consecrated by a vow or promise.
votive adj. Dedicated by a vow.
vulgarity n. Lack of refinement in conduct or speech.
vulnerable adj. Capable of receiving injuries.
waif n. A homeless, neglected wanderer.
waistcoat n. A vest.
waive v. To relinquish, especially temporarily, as a right or claim.
wampum n. Beads strung on threads, formerly used among the American Indians as currency.
wane v. To diminish in size and brilliancy.
wantonness n. Recklessness.
warlike adj. Belligerent.
wavelet n. A ripple.
weak-kneed adj. Without resolute purpose or energy.
weal n. Well-being.
wean v. To transfer (the young) from dependence on mother's milk to another form of nourishment.
wearisome adj. Fatiguing.
wee adj. Very small.
well-bred adj. Of good ancestry.
well-doer n. A performer of moral and social duties.
well-to-do adj. In prosperous circumstances.
whereabouts n. The place in or near which a person or thing is.
whereupon adv. After which.
wherever adv. In or at whatever place.
wherewith n. The necessary means or resources.
whet v. To make more keen or eager.
whimsical adj. Capricious.
whine v. To utter with complaining tone.
wholly adv. Completely.
wield v. To use, control, or manage, as a weapon, or instrument, especially with full command.
wile n. An act or a means of cunning deception.
winsome adj. Attractive.
wintry adj. Lacking warmth of manner.
wiry adj. Thin, but tough and sinewy.
witchcraft n. Sorcery.
witless adj. Foolish, indiscreet, or silly.
witling n. A person who has little understanding.
witticism n. A witty, brilliant, or original saying or sentiment.
wittingly adv. With knowledge and by design.
wizen v. To become or cause to become withered or dry.
wizen-faced adj. Having a shriveled face.
working-man n. One who earns his bread by manual labor.
workmanlike adj. Like or befitting a skilled workman.
workmanship n. The art or skill of a workman.
wrangle v. To maintain by noisy argument or dispute.
wreak v. To inflict, as a revenge or punishment.
wrest v. To pull or force away by or as by violent twisting or wringing.
wretchedness n. Extreme misery or unhappiness.
writhe v. To twist the body, face, or limbs or as in pain or distress.
writing n. The act or art of tracing or inscribing on a surface letters or ideographs.
wry adj. Deviating from that which is proper or right.
yearling n. A young animal past its first year and not yet two years old.
zealot n. One who espouses a cause or pursues an object in an immoderately partisan manner.
zeitgeist n. The intellectual and moral tendencies that characterize any age or epoch.
zenith n. The culminating-point of prosperity, influence, or greatness.
zephyr n. Any soft, gentle wind.
zodiac n. An imaginary belt encircling the heavens within which are the larger planets.
But to leave this, and pass to the latter part of Lisideius his discourse, which concerns relations, I must acknowledge with him, that the French have reason when they hide that part of the action which would occasion too much tumult upon the Stage, and choose rather to have it made known by the narration to the Audience. Farther I think it very convenient, for the reasons he has given, that all incredible actions were remov'd; but, whither custome has so insinuated it self into our Country-men, or nature has so form'd them to fierceness, I know not; but they will scarcely suffer combats & other objects of horrour to be taken from them. And indeed, the indecency of tumults is all which can be objected against fighting: For why may not our imagination as well suffer it self to be deluded with the probability of it, as with any other thing in the Play? For my part, I can with as great ease perswade my self that the blowes which are struck are given in good earnest, as I can, that they who strike them are Kings or Princes, or those persons which they represent. For objects of incredibility I would be satisfied from Lisideius, whether we have any so remov'd from all appearance of truth as are those of Corneilles Andromede? A Play which has been frequented the most of any he has writ? If the Perseus, or the Son of an Heathen God, the Pegasus and the Monster were not capable to choak a strong belief, let him blame any representation of ours hereafter. Those indeed were objects of delight; yet the reason is the same as to the probability: for he makes it not a Ballette or Masque, but a Play, which is to resemble truth. But for death, that it ought not to be represented, I have besides the Arguments alledg'd by Lisideius, the authority of Ben. Johnson, who has forborn it in his Tragedies; for both the death of Sejanus and Catiline are related: though in the latter I cannot but observe one irregularity of that great Poet: he has remov'd the Scene in the same Act, from Rome to Catiline's Army, and from thence again to Rome; and besides has allow'd a very inconsiderable time, after Catilines Speech, for the striking of the battle, and the return of Petreius, who is to relate the event of it to the Senate: which I should not animadvert upon him, who was otherwise a painful observer of to prepon, or the decorum of the Stage, if he had not us'd extream severity in his judgment upon the incomparable Shakespeare for the same fault. To conclude on this subject of Relations, if we are to be blam'd for showing too much of the action, the French are as faulty for discovering too little of it: a mean betwixt both should be observed by every judicious Writer, so as the audience may neither be left unsatisfied by not seeing what is beautiful, or shock'd by beholding what is either incredible or undecent. I hope I have already prov'd in this discourse, that though we are not altogether so punctual as the French, in observing the lawes of Comedy; yet our errours are so few, and little, and those things wherein we excel them so considerable, that we ought of right to be prefer'd before them. But what will Lisideius say if they themselves acknowledge they are too strictly ti'd up by those lawes, for breaking which he has blam'd the English? I will alledge Corneille's words, as I find them in the end of his Discourse of the three Unities; Il est facile aux speculatifs d'estre severes, &c. "'Tis easie for speculative persons to judge severely; but if they would produce to publick view ten or twelve pieces of this nature, they would perhaps give more latitude to the Rules then I have done, when by experience they had known how much we are bound up and constrain'd by them, and how many beauties of the Stage they banish'd from it." To illustrate a little what he has said, by their servile observations of the unities of time and place, and integrity of Scenes, they have brought upon themselves that dearth of Plot, and narrowness of Imagination, which may be observ'd in all their Playes. How many beautifull accidents might naturally happen in two or three dayes, which cannot arrive with any probability in the compass of 24 hours? There is time to be allowed also for maturity of design, which amongst great and prudent persons, such as are often represented in Tragedy, cannot, with any likelihood of truth, be brought to pass at so short a warning. Farther, by tying themselves strictly to the unity of place, and unbroken Scenes, they are forc'd many times to omit some beauties which cannot be shown where the Act began; but might, if the Scene were interrupted, and the Stage clear'd for the persons to enter in another place; and therefore the French Poets are often forc'd upon absurdities: for if the Act begins in a chamber all the persons in the Play must have some business or other to come thither, or else they are not to be shown that Act, and sometimes their characters are very unfitting to appear there; As, suppose it were the Kings Bed-chamber, yet the meanest man in the Tragedy must come and dispatch his busines rather then in the Lobby or Court-yard (which is fitter for him) for fear the Stage should be clear'd, and the Scenes broken. Many times they fall by it into a greater inconvenience; for they keep their Scenes unbroken, and yet change the place; as in one of their newest Playes, where the Act begins in the Street. There a Gentleman is to meet his Friend; he sees him with his man, coming out from his Fathers house; they talk together, and the first goes out: the second, who is a Lover, has made an appointment with his Mistress; she appears at the window, and then we are to imagine the Scene lies under it. This Gentleman is call'd away, and leaves his servant with his Mistress: presently her Father is heard from within; the young Lady is affraid the Servingman should be discover'd, and thrusts him in through a door which is suppos'd to be her Closet. After this, the Father enters to the Daughter, and now the Scene is in a House: for he is seeking from one room to another for this poor Philipin, or French Diego, who is heard from within, drolling and breaking many a miserable conceit upon his sad condition. In this ridiculous manner the Play goes on, the Stage being never empty all the while: so that the Street, the Window, the two Houses, and the Closet, are made to walk about, and the Persons to stand still. Now what I beseech you is more easie than to write a regular French Play, or more difficult then to write an irregular English one, like those of Fletcher, or of Shakespeare.
First, give me leave, Sir, to remember you that the Argument against which you rais'd this objection, was onely secondary: it was built upon this Hypothesis, that to write in verse was proper for serious Playes. Which supposition being granted (as it was briefly made out in that discourse, by showing how verse might be made natural) it asserted, that this way of writing was an help to the Poets judgment, by putting bounds to a wilde overflowing Fancy. I think therefore it will not be hard for me to make good what it was to prove: But you add, that were this let pass, yet he who wants judgment in the liberty of his fancy, may as well show the defect of it when he is confin'd to verse: for he who has judgment will avoid errours, and he who has it not, will commit them in all kinds of writing.