A process for thinking critically is required that will bring about decisions and ideas that will provide for a better life for ourselves and those around us.
Critical Thinking Defined Critical thinking is a process in which a person actively participates, and with skill comes to conclusions that are based on what a person has seen, experienced, and what one may believe....
In a discipline which has a less obviously practical application, for example some humanities areas of study, you will be thinking critically when you compare and contrast theories with each other, or when you try to work out gaps or flaws in those theories.
Critical thinking means different things in different disciplines. If you are studying in an education discipline, for example, you will be thinking critically when you apply theory to a practical situation and then reflect on what happened as a result of your application of that particular theory in that situation.
Some arguments, whether made by us or others, may be straightforward and easily understood; other arguments may be complex and consist of a series of smaller arguments, each needing to be critically examined and evaluated.
Richard Paul (2006) defines critical thinking as the “disciplined art of ensuring that you use the best thinking you are capable of in any set of circumstances.” It is essentially using the best information available to make the best decisions possible....
Each student exam must be graded individually by a person competent to assess the critical thinking of the test taker and trained in the grading called for in this examination. In evaluating student exams the grader is attempting to answer two questions:
The best way to develop critical thinking is to write. Writing forces you to organize your thoughts, contemplate your topic, evaluate your data in a logical fashion and present your conclusions in a persuasive manner. Good writing is the epitome of good critical thinking. Writing promotes critical thinking by requiring you to acquire, synthesize and logically analyze information, and then present this information and your conclusions in written form.
Scroll down to see the Penn-Mart memo
Analyze the business document below (scroll down), applying all steps of the critical thinking model described in Asking the Right Questions by Browne and Keeley
(2012) 10th edition.
In a short paper (7 double spaced pages) the steps of the critical thinking model to assess the arguments made in the critical thinking assignment document. There will
The purpose of the International Critical Thinking Test is to provide an assessment of the fundamentals of critical thinking that can be used with content from any subject. The goal of the test is two-fold. The first goal is to provide a reasonable way to pre- and post-test students to determine the extent to which they have learned to think critically. The second goal is to provide a test instrument that stimulates the faculty to teach their discipline so as to foster critical thinking in the students.
Once faculty become committed to pre- and post-testing their students using the exam, it is natural and desirable for them to emphasize analysis and assessment of thinking in their routine instruction within the subjects they teach. The exam, therefore, is designed to have a significant effect on instruction.
The test is designed to have high consequential validity; that is, the consequence of using the test is significant: faculty tend to re-structure their courses to put more emphasis on critical thinking within the disciplines (to help students prepare for the test). It also has the consequence that faculty think through important critical thinking principles and standards
(which they otherwise take for granted)
The International Critical Thinking test differs from traditional critical thinking tests in that traditional tests tend to have low consequential validity; that is, the nature of the test items is such that faculty, not seeing the relevance of the test to the content they teach, ignore it.
The International Critical Thinking Test is the perfect test to teach to. For one, the structure and standards for thought explicit in the test are relevant to thinking in all departments and divisions. The English Department can test their students using a literary prompt. The History Department can choose an excerpt from historical writing; Sociology from sociological writing; etc. In one case, a section from a textbook may be chosen; in another, an editorial, in a third, a professional essay. In short, the writing prompt can be chosen from any discipline or writing sample.
What is more, since to make the test reliable the faculty must be intimately involved in the choosing of the writing prompt and in the grading of tests, faculty are primed to follow up on the results. Results are seen to be relevant to assessing instruction within the departments involved.
The International Critical Thinking Essay Test is divided into two parts: 1) analysis of a writing prompt, and 2) assessment of the writing prompt. The analysis is worth 80 points; the assessment is worth 20. In the Analysis segment of the test, the student must accurately identify the elements of reasoning within a written piece (each response is worth 10 points). In the Assessment segment of the test, the student must construct a critical analysis and evaluation of the reasoning (in the original piece).
Many college assignments require you to support a thesis. The concept of a critical thinking essay is that you start without an end in mind. You don't necessarily know how you feel about a subject or what you want to say about the subject … you allow the research and your own thinking to determine the outcome. This is writing to learn rather than writing to prove what you know.
The critical thinking essay has you look at and contribute to a range of arguments rather than just one at a time. Critical thinking essays consider the strengths and weaknesses of various solutions to a problem or various answers to a question. It requires thinking ... not information reporting.