Knowing the influence of social interaction on child development in the first few years, the essay is going to elaborate upon the implication of social interaction on the development of cognition....
One broad and general definition of emotional abuse states emotional maltreatment “involves acts or omissions by those in contact with a child that are likely to have serious, negative, emotional impact” (Ministry of Child and Family Development)....
The skills of emotional competence do not develop in isolation from each other and their progression is intimately tied to cognitive development. For example, insight into others’ emotions grows in interaction with expanding awareness of one’s own emotional experience, with one’s ability to empathize and with the capacity to understand causes of emotions and their behavioural consequences. Furthermore, as children learn about how and why people act as they do, they grow in their ability to infer what is going on for themselves emotionally.
The development of emotional competence skills is a developmental process such that a particular skill manifests differently at different ages. With young children, emotion knowledge is more concrete, with heightened focus on observable factors. Young children’s emotion expression and emotion regulation are less well-developed, requiring more support and reinforcement from the social environment. Elementary school children advance in their ability to offer self-reports of emotions, and to use words to explain emotion-related situations. As children mature, their inferences about what others are feeling integrate not only situational information, but also information regarding prior experiences and history. Older children are also more able to understand and express complex emotions such as pride, shame or embarrassment. By adolescence, issues of identity, moral character and the combined effects of aspiration and opportunity are more explicitly acknowledged as significant by youth.
In contrast, a child who experiences the world as unpredictable, unresponsive and/or hostile must expend a tremendous amount of energy self-managing emotional arousal. Insecure attachment is associated with emotional and social incompetence, particularly in the areas of emotion understanding and regulated anger.4 Furthermore, perceptions of an indifferent or unfriendly social world influence subsequent emotional responses and interpersonal behaviour. For example, a child who experiences maltreatment may develop primary emotional responses such as anxiety or fear.5 Ever vigilant for signs of threat, the child may display aggressive or submissive behaviours as a means of self-protection, and such behaviours may place the child at risk for future status as a bully or victim. Cognitive-affective structures associated with maltreatment may promote emotional constriction or peculiar emotional responsiveness, interfering with a child’s ability to engage successfully with peers.6
Competent children and youth do not experience lives free of problems, but they are equipped with both individual and environmental assets that help them cope with a variety of life events. The skills of emotional competence are one set of resources that young people bring to life’s diverse challenges. As with development in other domains, mastery of early skills related to emotional development, such as affective regulation, impacts a child’s ability to navigate future developmental challenges.
- Childhood Development research papers overview the process of childhood development, which encompasses the physical, mental, and emotional growth that occurs from birth through the end of adolescence.
Emotion-relevant regulation is hypothesized to involve a variety of processes and mechanisms, including the following: (a) the regulation of internal emotional and physiological states (i.e., emotion regulation–the process of initiating, maintaining, modulating, or changing the occurrence, intensity, or duration of internal feeling states and emotion-related physiological processes); and (b) the regulation of emotionally-driven behavior (i.e., the process of initiating, maintaining, inhibiting, modulating, or changing the occurrence, form, and duration of behavioral concomitants of emotion). Both of these types of regulation are expected to be associated with peer status. Children who can regulate their emotional reactions and moods by means of attentional and cognitive processes such as shifting and focusing attention as needed are expected to be relatively emotionally regulated, positive, and appropriate in their emotional reactions. Moreover, children who can inhibit the inappropriate expression of emotion, but are not so highly inhibited that they have difficulty dealing with new contexts and people, are expected to exhibit constructive behavior and to be liked by peers. Various types of regulation tend to be intercorrelated.
In regard to behavioral regulation, the repeated finding that aggressiveness is linked to lower peer status is consistent with the notion that the ability to modulate anger contributes to peer sociometric status. In fact, children who can regulate their arousal engage in fewer aggressive interactions with peers than do other children; this finding may hold especially for sociable children. Somewhat more direct evidence also has been obtained; for example, popular boys (but not girls are less likely to vent emotion when angered than are their less popular peers. Further, children who tend to display appropriate expressions of emotion engage in more complex (e.g., cooperative or associative play. Children low in social status often are low in cognitive and behavioral self-control and are impulsive; they also tend to display excessive motor behavior. Moreover, elementary children who are emotionally immature–who express their fear and sadness rather than controlling it–are relatively likely to remain rejected over time. Thus, although some rejected boys appear to be average in self-control but high in withdrawn behavior, behavioral regulation usually has been related social status, especially peer rejection.
Children’s relations with their peers play an essential role in their psychosocial development. Consequently, it is critical for researchers and practitioners to understand the factors that impede the development of healthy peer relations during childhood. Perhaps the most extensively studied factor linked to peer relationship difficulties is children’s aggressive behavior. Another, albeit less studied factor that might present an obstacle for establishing satisfying social relationships with others is children’s depression. As suggested by the interactional theory of depression, depressed individuals exhibit certain maladaptive behaviors in interpersonal interaction, such as frequent complaints or a focus on negative themes, which may induce a negative mood in others. This might eventually cause others to reject the depressed person and to avoid future interactions. Both aggression and depression may thus promote relationship difficulties with peers.
- Child Growth and Development research papers look into the four distinct periods of Child development: infancy, preschool, middle childhood, and adolescence.