Even the first digital tools were initially representational. The digital drawing board was based on Cartesian systems of coordination and resembled a conventional design on paper It provided traditional tools, such as lines, sections, compasses, dimensions etc. Despite their increasing ability to create and edit more complex forms, even nowadays the most commonly used computer aided design softwares work very much as traditional drawing boards. One of the first digital modelling tool CATIA (Computer Aided Three-Dimensional Interactive Application) first developed in 1977 to design streamlined and aerodynamic structures such as ships and aircrafts soon made its way to aid architectural designs of Frank Ghery and gave shape to his well known complex forms. This type of application of CATIA and other similar software tools has ever since exploded and spread all over architectural offices. But for all its ability to represent complex geometries, Ghery’s designs were still largely based on traditional paper and foam models, before being rendered into impressive three-dimensional ones.
In the early 20th century, the axonometric drawing became the symbol of the modern movement. Contrary to the single point perspective view that has been the main representational tool of the 19th century, the parallel perspective used in the axonometric allowed for the measurable elements to remain in scale while maintaining the same level of detail through out the drawing. It was a method of representation that, according to Gropius, (Amerikanou, 2006: 217) was able to join the atmosphere of a space and the line drawing. It allowed to avoid the disadvantages of the latter (concerning perception) without compromising the possibility to directly measure dimensions. The axonometric declared the independence of the wall and established the surface as a new architectural element. Its technical nature favorited a strict and minimal expression, which came to be the defining language in modernist narrative.
Edited by Kim Shkapich
Designed as a dictionary to read the architectural drawings that track a ten-year eastern journey from Venice and Berlin to Prague; from Riga, Lake Baikal, to Vladivostok on the Sea of Japan, this is the second volume of John Hejduk’s trilogy.
The reader is introduced to the cast of iconographic sketches named in english and in russian. These icons identify the architectural subject within the frame of the drawing in order of appearance. A text introduces each structure within the masque of the book, incorporating fiction, expository writings, descriptive prose, and poetry, until text runs out and the icons become words.
These projects are a new a approach to urban form—an intensive investigation of programs that are a catalyst for an architecture deeply concerned with the metaphysics of objects and subjects, and their associations with a place.
The projects include designs for such structures as The Museum for the Preservation of Icons, Buildings of the Informers, The Ministry of Culture, among others.
MASK OF MEDUSA
Edited by Kim Shkapich
The first major book of the architect is an encyclopeadia of his works between 1947–83, framed in time. Hejduk’s work and thought is introduced by the voices of the first section; interviews with Don Wall and Peter Eisenman, essays by Franz Oswald and Richard Pommer, and excerpts from literature that have informed his work—in counterpoint—to the voice of the architect over time. Hejduk’s texts written at the time of the projects, and those written contemporanous to the production of the book, looking back, harmonize with his prose pieces and poems, revealing a body of work and methodological thought.
One crosses over on pages 158 through 160, as table of content and index to the second section which chronologizes eighty-two projects in hundreds of drawings, among them the Texas and Diamond Houses, the Wall Houses, the Italian projects and the early masques.
Constructed to be read at random, or chapter by chapter as a linear account, the reader can always locate oneself in time to the architect’s work.
Introductions 1984 & 1978 by Daniel Libeskind.
Designed by Lorraine Wild.
Major students work with a variety of materials; master hand-manipulated techniques and tools that are essential in the various fabric processes; develop an appreciation for color, pattern, and texture; and must be willing to meet deadlines. The ability to draw is essential in order to bring ideas to reality for most work, particularly flat pattern design. The ability to visualize and construct objects in two-and three-dimensional forms is required.
An architecture is usually represented by means of one or more architecture models that together provide a coherent descriptionof the system's architecture. A single, comprehensive model is often too complex to be understood and communicated in its mostdetailed form, showing all the relationships between the various business and technical components. As with the architecture of abuilding, it is normally necessary to develop multiple views of the architecture of an information system, to enable thearchitecture to be communicated to, and understood by, the different stakeholders in the system.
The evolution of digital media has added a significant amount of complexity both in the story-building as in the architectural design process. The possibilities of design and storytelling are expanding. In architecture, the introduction of advanced computational tools has permitted designers to generate and construct highly complex forms, quickly shift between scales, work faster and compare models with unprecedented ease. The development of these tools still to this day however leaves a lot to wish for in terms of its contribution to a deeper understanding of the user experience that comes beyond formal, functional and structural aspects.
The paper discusses Gropius views on the idea of the machine and then describes how the architectural elements in the main building complex at Bauhaus Dessau served as an embodiment of the machine age.
The section, one of the most commonly used representational views in modern design drawings, only started to be widely used in the late renaissance. Its proliferation coincided with the break of the taboo of dissecting the human body. Dissecting a building created a dialogue between the cutting surface and the depth shown behind and thus allowed for the interior to be disconnected from the exterior. In english the word section means both the “cut” and the “fragment”. Till then the buildings were designed mainly in plan and perspective views; the parallel projection of the section allowed the interiors to be worked out as independent surfaces. (Manolidis, 2006: 188) The architectural section can also be seen as an example of the development of a tool that also stood in line with the rules of composition used during the Renaissance. The beauty of the the whole was defined by the perfect proportions of its parts as if they were autonomous objects. Consequently, the buildings were not only designed as perfect in plan and elevation, but in section as well. Even though the buildings would hardly ever be seen in such an abstract situation, it allowed for a better understanding of volume and depth that together with the perspective drawing has had a large influence on the theatrical experiments of light and shadow developed later in Baroque.
In virtual game worlds, as Second Life, space is released from real world constraints and architecture is produced in an environment where a lot of users can interact during the production of space. In this way, a tool, not originally intended to be used for spatial design is becoming the testing ground for collective attitudes around architecture and design. It is thus, hardly surprising that more than two hundred universities have been using Second Life as part of their educational planning curriculum. (Kelton, 2007) Hollander and Thomas (2009: 109-112) give an account of an experiment they conducted in two university design courses, using Second Life as their main educational instrument. They observe that the use of a virtual environment increased collaboration among the students and improved their problem finding and problem-solving skills. Even the that they were challenged by the “reality” of this virtual world, dealing with harassment and vandalism, reinforces the argument that, because virtual environments still share many connections to the real world, they are very suitable environments to explore alternatives before applying them in the real world. The authors also note that traditional digital design tools, isolate the building from it’s context and do not associate it with its direct environment, while Second Life allows for a virtual “life” occurring in the designs, thus allows for immediate evaluation of the design proposals.
Examined below are four cornerstone events that marked breakthroughs in by the discovery of new representational tools that influenced the development of architectural design as a storytelling process, that is: the invention of perspective drawing, implementation of section, axonometric drawing and eventually digital 3d modelling and visualization.