Presentation Summary : Characteristics of Descriptive Essays. Involves observing a person, object, or scene and relating what has been observed to the reader. Technical description: deals ...
More specifically, Baillargeon's article "Object Permanence in 3 ½- and 4 ½-Month-Old Infants" is an example of one researcher utilizing proven research from another....
Some concepts and expressions are such that they don't apply to objects individually, but rather serve to relate objects to objects. For example, the words "before" and "after" do not apply to objects individually — it makes no sense to say "Jim is before" or "Jim is after" — but to one thing in relation to another, as in "The wedding is before the reception" and "The reception is after the wedding". Such "relational" or "polyadic" ("many-place") concepts and expressions have, for their extension, the set of all sequences of objects that satisfy the concept or expression in question. So the extension of "before" is the set of all (ordered) pairs of objects such that the first one is before the second one.
This essay examines the popularization of Russian museum culture via periodical press during the second half of the nineteenth century. The museum and the daily newspaper were two new public spaces engendered by the Great Reforms where discourses on nationality and art intersected in an open dialogue on Russia’s self-representation. This dialogue, uniquely preserved by the contemporary press, allows us to document how the museum age was written. It also demonstrates that Russian museums and exhibitions were fashioned in the popular press as much as they were by architects, curators, and patrons. While exhibitions and museums proper take care of material objects, the discourse constructed around them deals with the portrayal of these objective realities in light of national ideologies, public opinion, and personal preferences. A historically grounded analysis of this discourse gives insight into the larger process of culture making via writing. Between the two modes of representation which are at work in the museum—the visual and the verbal—layer upon layer of meaning have been created over time.
Foucault's use of episteme has been asserted as being similar to Thomas Kuhn's notion of a paradigm, as for example by Jean Piaget. However, there are decisive differences. Whereas Kuhn's paradigm is an all-encompassing collection of beliefs and assumptions that result in the organization of scientific worldviews and practices, Foucault's episteme is not merely confined to science but to a wider range of discourse (all of science itself would fall under the episteme of the epoch). While Kuhn's paradigm shifts are a consequence of a series of conscious decisions made by scientists to pursue a neglected set of questions, Foucault's epistemes are something like the 'epistemological unconscious' of an era; the configuration of knowledge in a particular episteme is based on a set of fundamental assumptions that are so basic to that episteme so as to be invisible to people operating within it. Moreover, Kuhn's concept seems to correspond to what Foucault calls theme or theory of a science, but Foucault analysed how opposing theories and themes could co-exist within a science. Kuhn doesn't search for the conditions of possibility of opposing discourses within a science, but simply for the (relatively) invariant dominant paradigm governing scientific research (supposing that one paradigm always is pervading, except under paradigmatic transition). In contrast, Foucault attempts to demonstrate the constitutive limits of discourse, and in particular, the rules enabling their productivity; however, Foucault maintained that though ideology may infiltrate and form science, it need not do so: it must be demonstrated how ideology actually forms the science in question; contradictions and lack of objectivity is not an indicator of ideology. Kuhn's and Foucault's notions are both influenced by the French philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard's notion of an "epistemological rupture", as indeed was Althusser. More recently, Judith Butler used the concept of episteme in her book Excitable Speech, examining the use of speech-act theory for political purposes.
Ekphrasis or ecphrasis is the graphic, often dramatic description of a visual work of art. In ancient times it referred to a description of any thing, person, or experience. The word comes from the Greek ek and phrasis, 'out' and 'speak' respectively, verb ekphrazein, to proclaim or call an inanimate object by name.
Poetry can take various forms but always expresses a message in a unique way, often with rhythm or rhyme. However, some of the most intensely expressive poetry is highly descriptive and uses language that creates images and feelings beyond that of other literary work. Descriptive poetry, unlike , is known not necessarily for telling a story but for its deep depiction of a person, animal or inanimate object.