DuBois. (Sound Recording). (Los Angeles, CA: Pacifica Tape Library, 1983). (Media Center E185.97 D73 A67 1983).
DuBois: A Recorded Autobiography, and a classroom debate.The following questions are to be considered here by the teacher and students:
Generally, DuBois opposed Washingtons program because it was narrow in its scope and objectives, devalued the study of the liberal arts, and ignored civil, political, and social injustices and the economic exploitation of the black masses.DuBois firmly believed that persistent agitation, political action, and academic education would be the means to achieve full citizenship rights for black Americans.
Expressing the sentiment of the radical civil rights advocates, DuBois demanded for all black citizens 1) the right to vote, 2) civic equality, and 3) the education of Negro youth according to ability.
Washington and Others, DuBois said that Washingtons accommodationist program asked blacks to give up political power, insistence on civil rights, and higher education for Negro youth.
William Edward Burghardt DuBois was born on February 23, 1868, on Church Street in Great Barrington, Berkshire County in western Massachusetts. His mother was Mary Burghardt and his father was Alfred DuBois, but W.E.B. DuBois never met his father. DuBois was born just five years after the Emancipation Proclamation, but because he grew up in a small community where racial injustice was not an issue, he did not experience racial oppression himself until his early college years. This oppression propelled his academics, driving him to be the first African-American to earn a PhD from Harvard University. That same drive led him to the role of social advocate.
One of the original founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), W.E.B. DuBois was a prolific writer whose work advocated against the injustice to the African-American of the early 20th century. His book, The Philadelphia Negro (1899), examined the findings of an 1896-1897 study conducted about the lifestyles of African-Americans living in Philadelphia at the time. W.E.B. DuBois’ voice spanned the globe as he spoke out against all social injustices.
Throughout his life, DuBois was founder and/or editor of numerous newspapers and magazines, including Fisk Herald (1887-1888); The Moon (1906); The Horizon (1907-1910); The Crisis (1910); The New Review (1913); The Brownies’ Book, a magazine for children (1920- 1921); and Phyon (1940). DuBois also wrote several essays reflecting the struggles of the American Negro of the time, including Strivings of the Negro People (originally appearing in the Atlantic Monthly in August 1897), A Negro Schoolmaster in the New South (Atlantic Monthly, January 1899), The Freedman’s Bureau (Atlantic Monthly, 1901), The Evolution of Negro Leadership (The Dial, July 1901), and Of the Training of Black Men (Atlantic Monthly, September 1902.)
W.E.B. Du Bois died on August 27, 1963—one day before Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his "I Have a Dream" speech at the March on Washington—at the age of 95, in Accra, Ghana, while working on an encyclopedia of the African Diaspora.
Chiefly a writer and editor engaged in advocacy, he taught in many different areas of interest to supplement his income. From 1894 to 1896, he was a professor of Greek and Latin at Wilberforce University, Ohio. He was an assistant professor of sociology at the University of Pennsylvania from 1896 to 1897, and from 1897-1910, a professor of economics and history at Atlanta University. He was also a board member or chair of many political and social organizations. Most notably, in 1908 DuBois became one of the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), one of the most influential organizations for the advocacy of African-Americans.
In 1903, Du Bois published his seminal work, The Souls of Black Folk, a collection of 14 essays. In the years following, he adamantly opposed the idea of biological white superiority and vocally supported women's rights. In 1909, he co-founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and served as editor of its monthly magazine, The Crisis.
In 1899, W.E.B. DuBois wrote The Philadelphia Negro (U of Pennsylvania P, 1899). This work was a commentary on a study financed by the University of Pennsylvania involving over 40,000 African-Americans living in Philadelphia from August of 1896 to December of 1897. DuBois completed all aspects of the study on his own. He arrived in Philadelphia in 1896 and lived in a room above a cafeteria in the old seventh ward with Spruce Street to the North, South Street to the South, Sixth Street to the East, and Twenty-third Street to the West. The study examined the living conditions and attitudes of the Philadelphia-based African-American. The study focused on the geographical distribution of the race, occupations and daily lives of the participants, their homes, organizations they belonged to, and most importantly, their relation to the white citizens of Philadelphia. This study became known as the first great empirical book on the African-American in American society. DuBois said of his project in Dusk of Dawn, “It revealed the Negro group as a symptom, not a cause; as a striving, palpitating group, and not an inert, sick body of crime; as a long historical development and not a transient occurrence.” DuBois delved into the history of the Pennsylvanian African-American specifically but also expanded it as a guide toward solving the many African-American problems within most American cities at that time.