Congress should require the Departments of Health and HumanServices, Justice, Labor, and Commerce to provide it withgeographical mapping of the conditions known to be related to crimeand other social problems. Among the problem indices that should bemapped:
In the case of Crime and Punishment Dostoevsky employs irregular plot pacing to develop the character of the protagonist, Raskolnikov, who undergoes quite a journey.
“Total sexual crimes” as reported by the police include 59 separate offences ranging from sex work to rape. Increases or decreases in such a broad category of crime cannot tell us much. The police should provide statistics for each of the crimes.
Conflict within "step families" (families where at least one ofthe married parents is not the biological parent of all thechildren) also has serious effects. According to the CaliforniaYouth Authority study of female delinquents, conducted by JillLeslie Rosenbaum, professor of criminology at California StateUniversity, "In the two parent families examined in this study agreat deal of conflict was present. Of these parents, 71 percentfought regularly about the children. Since there were often 'his','hers' and 'theirs' present, the sources of conflict tended toresult from one set of children having a bad influence on theothers, the type of punishment invoked, or one particular childreceiving too much attention."
Reporting of rape must be encouraged. This will however necessitate a change in how police performance is measured. Currently, the police are expected to reduce violent crime by between 4% and 7% per year. This creates a disincentive for police to record all violent crimes reported to them. If victims are encouraged to report rape, and the police indeed record all these reports, the number of recorded rapes will increase. This should not impact negatively on assessments of police performance.
As the chart on the following page shows, the rate of juvenilecrime within each state is closely linked to the percentage ofchildren raised in single-parent families. States with a lowerpercentage of single-parent families, on average, will have lowerrates of juvenile crime. State-by-state analysis indicates that, ingeneral, a 10 percent increase in the number of children living insingle-parent homes (including divorces) accompanies a 17 percentincrease in juvenile crime.
According to the professional literature, the absence of thefather is the single most important cause of poverty. The same istrue for crime. According to Kevin and Karen Wright,
Along with the increased probability of family poverty andheightened risk of delinquency, a father's absence is associatedwith a host of other social problems. The three most prominenteffects are lower intellectual development, higher levels ofillegitimate parenting in the teenage years, and higher levels ofwelfare dependency. According to a 1990 report from the Department of Justice, more often than not, missing and "throwaway" childrencome from single-parent families, families with step parents, andcohabiting-adult families.
What is the extent and in what sociologically measurable ways do communities contribute to the causation and prevention of crime in their neighborhoods.
Irrespective of those theoretical head on collisions, the presence of socio economic factors behind each juvenile crime committed is almost accepted by all....
Recently, University of Chicago economist Steven Levitt and Stanford University Law School professor John Donohue III created a furor with their research paper "Legalized Abortion and Crime." The authors contend that legalized abortion fueled the drop in crime in the 1990s because a new subclass of humanity they've identified- "women most at risk to have children who would engage in criminal activity"-have higher abortion rates, thus preemptively executing the would-be felons....
The social aspect of community sustainability relates to the rise and fall of crime rate, volunteer effort, and the number of people running for offices that represent the community.
If a child's emotional attachment to his mother is disruptedduring the first few years, permanent harm can be done to hiscapacity for emotional attachment to others. He will be less ableto trust others and throughout his life will stay more distantemotionally from others. Having many different caretakers duringthe first few years can lead to a loss of this sense of attachmentfor life and to antisocial behavior. Separation from the mother,especially between six months and three years of age, can lead tolong lasting negative effects on behavior and emotionaldevelopment. Severe maternal deprivation is a critical ingredientof juvenile delinquency: As John Bowlby, the father of attachmentresearch, puts it, "Theft, like rheumatic fever, is a disease ofchildhood, and, as in rheumatic fever, attacks in later life arefrequently in the nature of recurrences." A child's emotionalattachment to his mother is powerful in other ways. For example,even after a period of juvenile delinquency, a young man's abilityto become emotionally attached to his wife can make it possible forhim to turn away from crime. This capacity is rooted in the veryearly attachment to his mother. We also know that a weak maritalattachment resulting in separation or divorce accompanies acontinuing life of crime.
In modern period, the basic theories of causation of crime are classical theory, biological theory, psychological theory, cultural theory and conflict theory....