Both, the Soviet Union and the United States of America encouraged building armed weapons and piling up arsenal.
➡ Many proxy wars were fought during this time; the most important being the Korean War.
This region came to be known as the East Germany.
➡ The Western region of Germany (known as the West Germany) was ruled by the Allies (US, UK, and France), and remained under the rule for nearly 40 years.
➡ The Government of East Germany erected the 1 in 1961 to prevent the flow of East Germans to West Germany.
➡ In 1949, West Germany became the Federal Republic of Germany, and Communist East Germany became the German Democratic Republic.
➡ Berlin, specifically the Berlin Wall, became a symbol of Cold War and division of Germany and Europe.
➡ The United States adopted the policy of Containment to stop communism from spreading in other parts of the world.
Following Du Bois, singer and activist Paul Robeson signed a U.S.S.R. petition to the United Nations, "We Charge Genocide," documenting a series of human rights abuses against African Americans. Communist activist Claudia Jones organized in Harlem for jobs, housing, and humane immigration policies. Both Robeson's and Du Bois's passports were revoked until 1958 while the Trinidadian Jones was deported to Britain. In the Cold War context, black struggles for freedom were largely denounced as un-American.
The segregation of black children in inferior schools, however, brought special criticism. Worldwide charges of American hypocrisy certainly played some part in the Brown decision. But the climate of anti-communism largely constrained most political battles to the legal arena while displacing the larger calls for freedom that included jobs, housing, land, and wealth. At the same time, courtroom success was quickly followed by waves of "massive resistance" by whites. Less than a year after the Brown decision, fourteen-year-old Chicagoan Emmett Till was found murdered in Mississippi's Tallahatchie River. He had been shot and his body mutilated because he allegedly whistled at a white woman. Yet his death was simply the most spectacular manifestation of white terror and racial containment.
Although the SALT II was successfully negotiated (1979), the U.S did not ratify the pact, because the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in the following year.
➡ The period between 1979-85 saw tension mounting again due to the strong anti-communist policies undertaken by President Reagan of the United States.
➡ The reforms (namely and ) introduced by Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev made a major contribution in ending the Cold War.
The term containment describes the foreign policy strategy pursued by the United States after the Second World War. The term was introduced into the public debate by , a diplomat and U.S. State Department adviser on Soviet affairs. In his famous anonymous Kennan suggested a "long-term, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies."
For Kennan containment was a political concept. As a strategy, containment sought to achieve three goals: the restoration of the balance of power in Europe, the curtailment of Soviet power projection, and the modification of the Soviet conception of international relations.
Choose one of the two essays on early Cold War foreign policies. You may choose to do the other one as well for both bonus and merit points. The choices are found in the links below.
Kennan's concept of containment was based on his particularistic notion of U.S. foreign policy. Kennan's containment differed significantly from the containment U.S. foreign policy-makers would later practice.
Under President Harry Truman, the United States had established a foreign policy doctrine called "containment." Originated by George Kennan, Dean Acheson, and other diplomats and policy advisors, the policy of "containment" aimed not to fight an all out war with the communist Soviet Union, but rather to confine communism and the Soviet Union to their existing boundaries. This doctrine led directly to the Vietnam war. "Containment" was based on several premises:
The war between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) and Republic of Korea (South Korea) in 1950 was more of an indirect conflict between the Soviet Union and the U.S.
➡ Similarly, the Vietnam War (1955-1975) was a military conflict, and was a part of the Cold War.
What's much more relevant here is the assumption that all nations must be aligned with either the US or the USSR, and that there could be no communist nation which was not also a pawn of the Soviets. China was also a communist nation after 1948, but this had failed to override thousands of years of enmity between Russia and China, two very different cultures with a long history of struggle over their borders. By the 50s, the Chinese were as anxious about the Russians as they were about the US. The United States feared the global spread of communism, but the doctrine of containment made it difficult to see nations as distinct, as places with different cultures, different problems, different histories. In this respect we can see Vietnam as an example of containment's failure.
X" he authored the most famous essay of the Cold War in 1947: The Sources of Soviet Conduct, an expansive essay in which he drew out the road map for the policy that would be known as "Soviet Containment".
Averell Harriman once remarked of Kennan:"He is a man who knows Russia, but he didn't understand the United States." to read about the Cold War prophet who believed that Kennan's containment policy was not tough enough on the Soviets...