Charveau, Michel.a. Translated by David Lorton. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1997.
Charveau, also the author of Cleopatra: Beyond the Myth written in the same year presents a picture of Egypt during the twenty year reign of Cleopatra VII. He focuses on numerous aspects of Egyptian society such as the role of religion, the institution of slavery, and the impact of Cleopatras relationship with Rome and how it applied to Egyptian social order. This work provides a genealogical table of the Ptolemaic Dynasty and maps of Egypt. Although this source does not provide much biographical information on Cleopatra, it would satisfy a researcher interested in her impact on Egyptian society.
Charveau, Michel. . Translated by David Lorton. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1997.
This secondary source attempts to eliminate many of the myths surrounding Cleopatra VII. Although this work is only ninety pages, it does provide a view into Cleopatras Greek origins and her relationships with both Caesar and Marc Antony. This source provides some solid background information and can help any researcher trying to dissect facts and myths such as her ethnicity, beauty, and political ambitions.
Due to the war she caused between Antony and Octavian, many people today wonder whether Cleopatra can really be considered a great ruler, because the war was what led to Egypt becoming one of the Roman Empire’s provinces....
After the removal of Persian rule in 332 B.C., the Ptolemaic Dynasty would begin its rule in Egypt which would last over 300 years, ending with the death of Cleopatra VII in 30B.C.. At one time Ptolemaic Egypt was one of the great powers of the world and expanded its rule without difficulties, but the inclusion of the Roman Empire into the Ptolemy dynastys affairs led to a decline in territories held, yet it was able to preserve the wealth and status of Egypt. By the time of Cleopatras rise to power, the state of Egypt was crumbling around her due to outside pressures from Rome, loss of lands, and famine at home. This last Pharaoh of Egypt used her beauty, cunning, sexuality and powers of persuasion to entice two of the worlds most powerful men to keep her once powerful empire free of complete Roman control. Besides dealing with problems abroad, Cleopatra VII had to overcome an Egyptian society that did not accept females as sole rulers without male guidance.
Although the name Cleopatra has been used by many Egyptian Queens, Cleopatra VII, by far is the most remembered overshadowing her predecessors with her political savvy, beauty and romantic life. Cleopatra VII was born in 69B.C. in Alexandria, Egypt to King Ptolemy XII Auletes. The identity of her mother is a mystery, but some have speculated that it may have been one of the Kings concubines or possibly his sister, Cleopatra V Tryphaena.
Weigell, Arthur. . New York: G.P. Putnams Sons, 1924.
Weigell, the former Inspector General of Antiquities for the government of Egypt provides an impartial view on Cleopatra offering both the good and the bad of the former Queen of Egypt. The author shows Cleopatra as both a politician and a person who at times could be brilliant and charming, but also cunning and ruthless. Like most books on Cleopatra, her relationships with Caesar and Marc Antony are highlighted. This secondary source provides numerous maps and portraits, but offers no bibliography. Although Weigell was an expert in the study of Egypt, the lack of a bibliography calls for caution in regards to this work.
Volkman, Hans. . Translated by T.J. Cerdoux. London: Elek Books Limited, 1953.
Volkman, a former professor at the University of Cologne focuses on Cleopatras relationships with Caesar and Marc Antony, and how they affected her Egyptian Kingdom. Cleopatra is portrayed as a cunning ruler who realized that her countrys survival depended on the personal relationships she formed with the male rulers of Rome. Egypt is described as a country that had a legitimate fear with the shadow of Rome hovering over it. This secondary source provides important information on the political aspect of Cleopatras reign and would be valuable to any researcher investigating her relationship with Caesar and Antony.
Sypniewski, Maggie. Cleopatra VII. Ancient Egypt. (2001) > (3 January 2008).
This site provides a historical background of ancient Egypt with pages dedicated to specific topics such as Cleopatra. The Cleopatra page has a bust of her from 50 B.C., and a biography is also provided. This biography contains information on her ancestors as well as the children she gave birth to. There is also a link to a web page dedicated to Cleopatra and Hollywood, which provides photographs of the actresses who portrayed Cleopatra. I would recommend this site for anyone interested in ancient Egypt.
What better way to describe Cleopatra, the last Queen of Egypt, Ruler of the Nile, sent from the Gods themselves to lead her people, than “Glory of Her Race”.
Lahanas, Michael. Cleopatra VII: Thea Neotera, . (2004)>(18 December 2005).
Lahanas, a physicist, created this website to showcase his Greek heritage along with Greek historical figures and topics that interest him. Although this site contains references to scientific topics particularity in the field of physics there are some historical links. The Cleopatra site provides basic information on the Egyptian Queen and also provides links to some unconventional Cleopatra websites which deal with topics such as her beauty and costume wear. One plus of this site is the lists of resources Lahanas makes available. He lists literature, films, television specials, and art which showcase Cleopatra. This site doesnt provide any unique information on Cleopatra besides the lists of resources.
James, Joan. Suzie Manleys Famous Egyptians: Cleopatra VII. Suzie Manleys Egypt: Stories of Egyptian Mystery and Magic. (No Date) >(18 December 2005).
This site created by Joan James is titled after an interactive character that goes on adventures in Egypt. This site enables you to read along with these adventures of mystery and magic. Although this site offers everything from Egyptian vacations to interactive learning, it does provide biographies of famous Egyptians including Cleopatra. The biography of Cleopatra is similar to most found on the web, it contains basic background information, but the best part of the Cleopatra link is a portrait painted by Winfred Brunton.
Grant, Michael. . New York: Simon and Schuster, 1972.
Grant was a professor at both Edinburgh University and Queens University at Belfast. His work on Cleopatra tends to focus on her relationships with Caser and Antony. Grant believes Cleopatra is unjustly criticized as being a seductress of Rome and should be admired for doing anything necessary for Egypt. He depicts Cleopatra as a ruler who was at the mercy of the Roman Empire which led to her romantic involvement with both men. This secondary source provides solid information for any researcher investigating the romantic life of Cleopatra.