Like any other drug, tolerance can result after consistent use of medication, this includes therapeutic effects. How quickly this occurs depends on the metabolism of the individual. In addition, the different side effects tolerance may develop at different rates. As with other opiates, a serious probable adverse reaction is respiratory .
Another very common side effect is decreased libido (lack of sexual drive). Codeine is known to interact negatively with certain psychiatric medications, so prior to administration it is advisable to check with a physician. It is possible to have an allergic reaction to codeine, which has been known to cause swelling of skin and rashes.
On the other hand, there are people who are in favor of enforcing school uniforms, because they have concluded that it does eliminate students from being assaulted by peers....
For Weinberg, who wanted to advance the case for civilian nuclear power, calculating the probability of a catastrophic nuclear reactor accident was a prime example of a trans-scientific problem. “Because the probability is so small, there is no practical possibility of determining this failure rate directly — i.e., by building, let us say, 1,000 reactors, operating them for 10,000 years and tabulating their operating histories.” Instead of science, we are left with a mélange of science, engineering, values, assumptions, and ideology. Thus, as Weinberg explains, trans-scientific debate “inevitably weaves back and forth across the boundary between what is and what is not known and knowable.” More than forty years — and three major reactor accidents — later, scientists and advocates, fully armed with data and research results, continue to debate the risks and promise of nuclear power.
Excessive use of the internet has proven hazardous to the generation because it decreases cognitive ability, impairs social development, and increases health problems.
Technology keeps science honest. But for subjects that are incredibly complex, such as Alzheimer’s disease and criminal behavior, the connection between scientific knowledge and technology is tenuous and mediated by many assumptions — assumptions about how science works (mouse brains are good models for human brains); about how society works (criminal behavior is caused by brain chemistry); or about how technology works (drugs that modify brain chemistry are a good way to change criminal behavior). The assumptions become invisible parts of the way scientists design experiments, interpret data, and apply their findings. The result is ever more elaborate theories — theories that remain self-referential, and unequal to the task of finding solutions to human problems.
The problem, as Fitzpatrick explains it, is that in this space between the proxy — say, measuring inhibitory control in a mouse, or for that matter a person — and a complex behavior, such as drug addiction, lies a theory about what causes crime and addiction and anti-social behavior. The theory “has ideological underpinnings. It shapes the kind of questions that get asked, the way research gets structured, the findings that get profiled, the person that gets asked to give the big speech.”
A scientific model allows you to study a simplified version, or isolated characteristics, of a complex phenomenon. This simplification is sometimes justified, for instance, if the cause-and-effect relations being studied in the model (say, the response of an airfoil to turbulence in a wind tunnel) operate in the same way in the more complex context (an airplane flying through a storm). In such cases you can have some confidence that what you’ve learned from the model can be applied to the actual problem at hand. Fitzpatrick thinks that such reasoning is not justified when using mouse brains to model human neurodegenerative disease.
But it’s worse than that. Scientists cite one another’s papers because any given research finding needs to be justified and interpreted in terms of other research being done in related areas — one of those “underlying protective mechanisms of science.” But what if much of the science getting cited is, itself, of poor quality? Consider, for example, in showing that an Alzheimer’s drug called bexarotene would reduce beta-amyloid plaque in mouse brains. Efforts to reproduce that finding have since failed, as in February 2016. But in the meantime, the paper has been cited in , many of which may have been cited multiple times in turn. In this way, poor-quality research metastasizes through the published scientific literature, and distinguishing knowledge that is reliable from knowledge that is unreliable or false or simply meaningless becomes impossible.
For starters, an addiction, is the need that people have to carry out with certain activities as may be eating or drinking, because of the satisfaction that this does to the addict.
“Internet addiction is when a person has a compulsive need to spend a great deal of time on the Internet, to the point where other areas of life (such as relationships, work or health) are allowed to suffer.” (Better Health Channel, 2011).
It wasn’t until my own therapist yelled at me to get my head out of my ass and take a look at myself that I realized what I was doing to myself. I looked like I had an eating disorder, I had circles around my eyes that were so dark I looked like a racoon, I hadn’t showered in days, there was a chance that I would have to retake 8th grade because of how many classes I was failing, and the school library had upgraded their security system 5 times over 2 years.