1.A solid majority of economists is now of the opinion that, even in a capitalist system, full employment may be secured by a government spending programme, provided there is in existence [an] adequate plan to employ all existing labour power, and provided adequate supplies of necessary foreign raw-materials may be obtained in exchange for exports. If the government undertakes public investment (e.g. builds schools, hospitals, and highways) or subsidizes mass consumption (by family allowances, reduction of indirect taxation, or subsidies to keep down the prices of necessities), and if, moreover, this expenditure is financed by borrowing and not by taxation (which could affect adversely private investment and consumption), the effective demand for goods and services may be increased up to a point where full employment is achieved. Such government expenditure increases employment, be it noted, not only directly but indirectly as well, since the higher incomes caused by it result in a secondary increase in demand for consumer and investment goods.
Capitalist enterprises, entrepreneurs, developers, 'aid workers' and fellow travelers have intruded into the environments of communities and appropriated their material resources to expand the resource base upon which capitalist nations rely to meet their constantly expanding material 'needs'.
Of course corruption exists everywhere and where communities are unraveling and law and order are less effective one will find practices which, in the eyes of inhabitants, are corrupt (see ; ). However, what constitutes corruption must always be judged against the forms and processes of leadership and communal organization found in a community and country.
With the worsening of the economic situation in the early 1980s, newly established civilian governments found themselves with few resources to confront a powerful community of international creditors determined to collect their debts. Thus, military governments as well as their civilian successors endorsed versions of the IMF adjustment program, which stressed domestic mismanagement as the cause of payment problems and domestic adjustment (reduction of government expenditures, curtailment of public subsidies, devaluations and trade liberalization) as a way out of the crisis ...
3. In the past, villages were made the bases of political activities and manoeuvres, most notably in the heyday of the Indonesian Communist Party. This adversely affected the social and economic life of the village populations. Hence, it would be desirable to free villages from the activities of political organizations.
For a discussion of the Summum Bonum see . People living in Western communities continue to assume that they deserve the prosperity and wellbeing which capitalism has, by and large, delivered to the middle classes. The 'problems' of the 'non-western' world (or even of their own poor and marginalized) are not their concern. In true capitalist style, the victims have brought it on themselves. The remedy is at hand: summed up in that wonderfully myopic absurdity "teach a man to fish and he has food for life" -
Yet, though in this instance we may glory in the wisdom of the English law, we shall find it more difficult to justify the frequency of capital punishment to be found therein; inflicted (perhaps inattentively) by a multitude of successive independent statutes, upon crimes very different in their natures.
The often quoted successful organization and activity of the in Bangladesh over the past twenty five years is an excellent example of the way in which this kind of 'pump-priming' works when properly adapted to the understandings and organization of the communities within which it is developed. As its founder, Muhammad Yunus explained, in an interview on CBC,
Over time, the promotion of selfishness as a virtue not only changes the way we look at ourselves, it influences the way we relate to each other and to the planet itself. Instead of citizens who define themselves in relation to common goods, we are reduced, under the selfish orientation of capitalism, to aggregates of self-interested atomistic individuals encouraged to believe that we can continue a lifetime of limitless consumption. Those who are entirely left out of the consumer game - the increasing numbers of homeless, stateless refugees, destitute and imprisoned whose day-to-day life is taken up by the fight for mere survival - are the necessary residue of a global capitalist system.
(Fred Guerin, , Truthout, 26 June 2014 00:00)
It has become fashionable to use the term "class" in defining variant socio-economic groupings in communities. This, however, too easily links the features of 19thcentury classes to what is a very different phenomenon. The "lower classes" were not simply the economically disadvantaged, they were the groups within the community who were being re-educated to take their place within a capitalist system. People who have already accepted that their lives should be organized in terms of capitalism can still find themselves economically disadvantaged, but they are not members of the "lower classes" as traditionally defined.
Marx was a little late in his speculations on the possibility of a revolution against capitalism. The revolution of the proletariat which Marx anticipated in the second half of the 19th century, might possibly have happened in the 18th but for the intervention of Protestant evangelicalism. The revolution which occurred was not an overthrow of capitalism but a religious conversion of the dispossessed and down-trodden to a reinvigorated version of the values of their oppressors.
The completeness of the Ricardian victory is something of a curiosity and a mystery. It must have been due to a complex of suitabilities in the doctrine to the environment into which it was projected. That it reached conclusions quite different from what the ordinary uninstructed person would expect, added, I suppose, to its intellectual prestige. That its teaching, translated into practice, was austere and often unpalatable, lent it virtue. That it was adapted to carry a vast and consistent logical superstructure, gave it beauty. That it could explain much social injustice and apparent cruelty as an inevitable incident in the scheme of progress, and the attempt to change such things as likely on the whole to do more harm than good, commended it to authority. That it afforded a measure of justification to the free activities of the individual capitalist, attracted to it the support of the dominant social force behind authority.
As anthropologists have come to realize over the past thirty years, the term culture should not be seen as referring to immutable forms of organization, interaction and meaning. The surface features of human community, which include what has over the past century been referred to as culture, can change considerably, yet remain consonant with the underlying principles expressed in those surface forms. So, all "cultural" change within communities must be understood in terms of the fundamental cognitive principles which order both thought and community (see )