The naturenurture debate highlights a key argument in psychology, over the relative influence of biology and environment on the characteristics of an individual; an extreme biological approach assumes that these are determined solely by extreme biological approach does not account for the wide base of evidence that points to the influence of our environment (e
Earlier behaviorism had been concerned with stimulus-responseconnections. Skinnerlooked at the learning process in the opposite way,investigating how learning was affectedby stimuli presented after an act wasperformed. He found that certain stimuli caused theorganism to repeat an actmore frequently. He called stimuli with this effect the"reinforcers". Watson found that by providing reinforcement in a systematic wayone couldshape the behavior in desired directions. Link to operant
The emerging field of social signal processing can benefit from a theoretical framework to guide future research activities. The present article aims at drawing attention to two areas of research that devoted considerable efforts to the understanding of social behaviour: ethology and social psychology. With a long tradition in the study of animal signals, ethology and evolutionary biology have developed theoretical concepts to account for the functional significance of signalling. For example, the consideration of divergent selective pressures responsible for the evolution of signalling and social cognition emphasized the importance of two classes of indicators: informative cues and communicative signals. Social psychology, on the other hand, investigates emotional expression and interpersonal relationships, with a focus on the mechanisms underlying the production and interpretation of social signals and cues. Based on the theoretical considerations developed in these two fields, we propose a model that integrates the processing of perceivable individual features (social signals and cues) with contextual information, and we suggest that output of computer-based processing systems should be derived in terms of functional significance rather than in terms of absolute conceptual meaning.
In looking for a more direct and effective explanation of thedevelopment of children'ssocial behavior, psychologists sparked the emergenceof observational learning (or SocialLearning Theory). Albert Bandurademonstrated that or observationallearning is the basis for avariety of children's behaviors. He stated that childrenacquire many favorableand unfavorable responses by simply watching and listening to othersaroundthem. A child who kicks other children after he sees it occurs at thebabysitter'shouse, a student who shaves her hair because her friends did, andthe boy who is alwayslate for class because others are, are all displaying theresults of observationallearning.
Cognitive theories of behaviour try to account for free will and decision making, and so it may be better to combine behaviourist and cognitive approaches when trying to explain abnormal behaviour.
Core topic essays, revision companions for issues & debates and biopsychology our both our stunningÂ t how the behavioural approach might be used to explain kirstyâs phobia of balloons
Assumptions have to be made that at least some human physiology and psychology is the same as animal physiology and psychology, but clearly humans are different to animals.
The behaviourist approach is extremely determinist because it states that a behaviour that has been reinforced WILL be carried out, and one that has been punished WILL NOT be carried out.
It was Watson, more than Pavlov or any other one person, who convincedpsychologiststhat the real explanation of behavior lay in the nervous systemand that as soon as weunderstood the brain a little better, most of themysteries would disappear. And, it wasmainly because of Watson that so manypsychologists came to believe that what they calledconditioning was soimportant.
People may learn to be anorexic through social learning by observing models and actresses, reading about the diets they are on, and copying the behaviour they see.
Much of the research into classical and operant conditioning has been conducted on animals.
Compare and contrast a psychodynamic/psychoanalytic and a cognitive-behavioural approach to the understanding and treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Which approach do you prefer and why?
It also requires you to take a wider outlook on the topics studied by considering the different issues, debates and following types of submissions are encouraged: theoretical reviews of mechanisms that contribute to psychopathology and that offer new treatment targets; tests of novel, mechanistically focused psychological interventions, especially ones that include theorydriven or experimentallyderived predictors, moderators and mediators; and innovations in dissemination and implementation of evidencebased practices into clinical practice in psychology and associated fields, especially those that target underlying mechanisms or focus on novel approaches to treatment delivery
Behavioural (how do you behave when you see your feared object?An international multidisciplinary journalthe major focus of behaviour research and therapy is an experimental psychopathology approach to understanding emotional and behavioral disorders and their prevention and treatment, using cognitive, behavioral, and psychophysiological (including neural) methods and models
For Pavlov, all behavior was reflexive. But how do such behaviors differfrom thebehavior commonly called "instinctive" ? Instinctivebehavior is sometimes saidto be motivated. The animal has to be hungry, to besexually aroused, or to havenest-building hormones before these kinds ofinstinctive behavior can occur. But Pavlovconcluded that there seems to be nobasis for distinguishing between reflexes and what hascommonly been thought ofas non reflexive behavior. As a psychologist, Pavlov was concernedwith thenervous system, and specifically the cerebral cortex, not with any lawfulnessthathe might find in behavior.