What has changed isthe "Man" in "balloonman." This suggests that Cummings wished to emphasisethe "man" part of the "balloonman." The children are unaffected by thischange, for nowhere in the poem do we glimpse either the children interactingwith one another (sexually), or "growing up" for any particular reason.
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Second, it must be recognised that this "new" readingis neither the "truthful" nor "right" meaning, but a reading that has equalprominence within the poem with other established readings.
First, that thecritics have failed to analyse the poem to the depths which, distastefulas they may seem, are required to produce a reading wholly at odds withthe innocent surface of the poem-a reading completely opposite to thatconventionally reached.
In other words,the "new" reading highlights an undecidable struggle for "truth / meaning"within the poem, which promotes a blurring or contamination of one oppositewith the other-in the sense that each "opposite" reading needs the otherto define itself.
Thus, Kidder statesthat the poem's innocent surface also contains "an underlying presenceinimical to that very innocence." Rather than force the issue, Kidder contentshimself by concluding that "Goats conventionally emblemize lust-clearlynot a childlike quality-and the capital in the final `balloonMan' emphasizesthe adult's presence in the child's world." It must be remembered thatKidder is the critic who also favours "Just-" to represent "its own inevitablejustice." The question begs, what is this "inevitable justice"?
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When reading this poem, one could definitely see religious connotations in that one cannot reach his/her full potential without The Master’s – God’s – help and direction.
Frost’s poem is an accurate reflection of life and of human imperfection through the use of repetition, literal and figurative language and various symbols.
Now, since the conventional and "new" readings differfrom and defer to each other, a complex moral statement is seen to emergefrom the poem which previously had not existed explicitly.
Dawe creates very complicated poems reflecting the author’s context relevant to the time period, your context is based upon your reading of the poem, where you may gather different meanings, to that of the original intent, hidden within the text.
Dawe’s poems capture Australian life in numerous ways, whether it is our passion for AFL in Life-Cycle or our reckless nature towards war as in Homecoming.
Taking the satyr image first, we find that satyrs are "goatlike men whodanced and drank in the train of Dionysus and chased the nymphs," and isalso "a man who has strong sexual desires." Indeed, the condition of satyriasisis a "compulsion in men to have sexual intercourse with many women withoutbeing able to have lasting relationships with them."Rememberingthat our "balloonman" is also "queer" (bi-sexual?) and a transient person,it can be seen that this description could "fit" into a "new" interpre-[end page 36] tation of this poem.
The first poem by Mike Jenkins is a reflection and remembrance by a Father who tragically and suddenly lost his son in a horrific and unfortunate disaster that happened in Aberfan in 1966, where many young lives were lost.
The author, Australian poet Bruce Dawe, wrote the poem in response to a news article describing how, at Californian Oaklands Air /Base, at one end of the airport families were farewelling their sons as they left for Vietnam and at the other end the bodies of dead soldiers were being brought home....