The Center for Alcohol Policy is now accepting entries for its . The Center’s national essay contest is intended to foster debate, analysis and examination of state alcohol regulation.
HOW TO ENTER: Essays may be emailed to or mailed as a hard copy to: Center for Alcohol Policy; Attn: Essay Contest; 1101 King St., Suite 600-A; Alexandria, VA, 22314. Essays must be accompanied by an .
If alcohol becomes a major part of someone’s life there are obviously going to be some effects on that person’s life in particular the financial cost, a cost to physical health and the psychological impact including relationships
Sometimes it is easily forgotten that Alcohol is an addictive substance. The odd glass of wine with a meal, a beer after work is socially acceptable. There are government guidelines that indicate the maximum alcoholic units per week that are safe to consume .However problems occur when drinking to excess or drinking as a solitary activity and eventually the person finds that they cannot get to sleep at night without a drink or even a bottle of wine or vodka or they cannot face the day without having a few glasses of wine, spirits or beer before they leave the house. Alcohol is very addictive and some people can monitor their consumptions but others find it very difficult, which can result in the need for alcohol to take over their lives.
The implication on finances can be two fold. Firstly, is the actual cost of the alcohol can be crippling. The odd glass of bottle of wine can be realistically absorbed into an average budget, but if the amount is for example 2-3 bottles a day (and this can be wine, beer or spirits) this can soon eat into earnings.
The is accepting nominations for the Fifth Annual Leadership in Alcohol Regulation Award until July 21, 2017. The award will be presented at the Center’s , September 6 – 8 at the in Chicago, Illinois.
A by former Chief Counsel for the United States Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau Robert M. Tobiassen, explains why there are few incidents of fake alcohol products in the United States. The study describes “strong regulatory systems that police the production, importation, distribution and retail sales of alcohol beverages through independent parties” and the country’s “competitive marketplace that provides alcohol beverages at all price points.”
The alcohol metabolism of a pregnant woman is much depressed compared with that of a non-pregnant woman, as estrogens largely inhibit the activity of ADH and ALDH, especially estradiol, one of three principle forms of estrogens, which has the strongest effect. Moreover, the total amount of estrogens in the serum of a pregnant woman in the early stages of pregnancy will increase by 10 - 100 times compared to that of a non-pregnant woman, and in mid to late pregnancy, increase by 100 - 1000 times. This affects the alcohol metabolism of a pregnant woman, and each of the three main estrogens exhibit relatively more volatility.
A pregnant woman is physiologically in a state of dynamic equilibrium along with the development of fetus, therefore, her condition places her at a disadvantage for the efficient metabolism of alcohol. ADH can be found in a fetal liver from the middle of the third month of pregnancy, and its activity will slightly linear increase; nonetheless, a fetus has almost no capacity to break down alcohol. In addition, a low molecular weight alcohol passes swiftly through the placenta and harms a developing fetus. Fifty percent of the alcohol crossing the placenta enters the bloodstream of the fetus, and the remaining 50% enters the circulatory system via the fetal liver. While alcohol remains in the bloodstream, the fetus, so to speak, continues being forced to consume alcohol by the mother.
When alcohol is consumed, it is absorbed into the bloodstream through the digestive tract, and acetaldehyde is formed mainly by the oxidation of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in the liver. Then acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) converts this acetaldehyde to acetic acid. Acetic acid undergoes several and complex routes, and is finally broken down into H2O and CO2 which are discharged to the outside of the body.
I. Alcohol metabolism in a mother's body and her fetus
Alcohol consumption in any amount by pregnant women cannot be considered safe for the fetus. Although a causal linkage between the quantity and duration of alcohol consumption, phase of pregnancy, and fetotoxic effect has not yet been established, there is no room for doubt that the concept of low risk and responsible drinking does not apply to pregnant women. The fetus is safest when the mother abstains from drink. However, it is estimated that more than 10 percent of women choose to continue drinking during pregnancy.
Forty percent of pregnant women addicted to alcohol give birth to a baby with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). In Japan, Dr. Takashima and others presented the first case in 1978. Both FAS as well as FAE (Fetal Alcohol Effects, incomplete features of FAS) are considered to be caused mainly by the direct action of alcohol (ethanol). There are also cases of suspected FAS (potential group) without any apparent symptoms. Three main diagnostic terms are used to describe babies associated with FAS caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol: facial abnormalities, dysfunction of the central nervous system, and retardation of growth.