The Surgeon's Wife The charming city of New Orleans as well as a varied cast of interesting characters are the main components of this intriguing novel. Mike Boudreaux has been the Chief of Surgery for four years, and he is faced with the challenging task of dealing with his favored professor and mentor, Clayton Otherson. Dr. Otherson is […]
The Spirit of Want A character-driven story, The Spirit of Want by William H. Coles explores the thrills and perils of desire, following one woman’s quest for pleasure and the consequences of her choices. Lucy is a successful defense lawyer, who is married to Luke Osbourne, a surgeon practicing under her father. When Lucy takes on the defense of […]
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The proposed analysis is shown to account for previously unaccounted for correlations between passivizability of the aspectual verbs and the event types of the verbal complements, as well as interactions between the Japanese aspectual verbs, subject honorification, and the focus particle -dake ‘only’.
In particular, it is proposed that (a) aspect heads occur in two positions in a clause, where they select for syntactic realizations of different event types, and (b) individual aspectual verbs are distributed differently between these two head positions based on the event types they select.
The cross-modal lexical priming experiment reported in the current study suggested that the sentential context quickly sets up a syntactic frame for accessing words of a particular syntactic category. The meanings of an ambiguous word (i.e., homophonic homographs, which share both phonological and orthographic representations) are activated exhaustively as long as their syntactic category matches the expectation. Exhaustive semantic activation of a word was found on Mandarin words of varying ROMs suggesting that meanings associated with the same phonological and orthographic representations would be co-activated regardless of the degree of semantic relatedness between the meanings. These results support the modular, syntax-first theories for lexical and discourse processing.
To sum up, the present study found that when lexical ambiguity is defined as meanings that share both orthographic and phonological lexical forms, these meanings can be co-activated regardless of contextual support as long as they are syntactically licensed by the sentential context. Taken together with previous results, these findings support the modular, syntax-first perspective about the relation between lexical and discourse processing. The syntactic parser analyzes the structure of the sentence and makes predictions about the syntactic category of an upcoming word. Meanings of different syntactic categories are accessed separately. Meanings of the same syntactic category are exhaustively activated regardless of contextual congruity. Lexical semantic processing and discourse processing are therefore initially independent of each other. Responding to the two research questions proposed in Section , then, we found that the multiple meanings of an ambiguous word are activated at the initial stage of lexical processing regardless of contextual compatibility. Context does not have an immediate effect on the activation of an ambiguous word’s meanings. Furthermore, the relatedness between an ambiguous word’s meanings does not have an effect on the activation of a particular word meaning.
Before wrapping up, it is worth considering the role of syntactic information in semantic co-activation. The SYNTACTICALLY LICENSED SEMANTIC CO-ACTIVATION CONSTRAINT requires that co-activated meanings be syntactically licensed by the context. This constraint suggests that syntactic processing in the sentence precedes lexical access and can cast direct influence on which meanings should be activated. To control for the syntactic properties of the materials, we have focused on verbs in the present study. Given that verbs have been argued to be more susceptible to changing their meanings to fit a context than nouns (e.g., through semantic coercion: Ahrens , Gentner and France ; Maratsos ; see also Pickering and Frisson ), whether the same co-activation effect can be observed on nouns and words of other syntactic categories should be further explored in future studies.
For future studies, the ORTHOGRAPHY-BASED SEMANTIC CO-ACTIVATION CONSTRAINT can be recast as a hypothesis about the effect of orthography on semantic access. Languages such as English and Spanish whose orthographies differ on phonological transparency and consistency, and languages whose orthography is often associated with multiple pronunciations (e.g., Japanese kanjis and Mandarin 破音字 po4yin1zi4) will serve as ideal candidates for such investigations. Furthermore, the relatedness of meaning effect, which was not observed on words that share logographic forms in the present study, can be further investigated at the homophonic level. In sum, the role that orthography plays in accessing word meanings in sentential contexts should be further considered in future research for fine-tuning the relation between lexical access and discourse processing.
Recall that the ORTHOGRAPHY-BASED SEMANTIC CO-ACTIVATION CONSTRAINT in the present study focuses on the logographic orthography of Chinese. This constraint has important typological implications for the role that logographic orthography plays in the relation between lexical form and meaning. In lexical ambiguity resolution research, orthography has rarely been considered separately from phonology because most previous research investigated languages whose orthographies are sound-based. A Chinese study like ours offers a valuable opportunity to examine the distinctive effects of orthographic and phonological representations given that the logographic orthography of Chinese is not directly associated with phonology and can be taken as a distinct level of representation for Mandarin words. The literature on Chinese lexical ambiguity resolution suggests that Chinese logography provides an additional required condition for semantic co-activation.
The present study extended this line of research by creating experimental materials that satisfied both the ORTHOGRAPHY CONSTRAINT and the SYNTACTIC CONSTRAINT, and examined whether the co-activation of word meanings may be modulated by different degrees of semantic relatedness between the associated meanings. We found that both meanings of an ambiguous word are activated regardless of the different ROMs. These results did not support the RELATEDNESS-TRIGGERED SEMANTIC CO-ACTIVATION HYPOTHESIS, according to which only the meanings that are closely-related should be co-activated. Our study suggested that the semantic relatedness between an ambiguous word’s meanings does not modulate semantic co-activation. For both low-ROM and high-ROM words, the associated meanings are co-activated regardless of contextual congruency. This finding is compatible with Hino et al.’s () proposal that the ROM of an ambiguous word may take effect only at a later decision-making stage of lexical processing.